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Frequently Asked Questions

Carbon Dioxide (13)

Crown Marking

 

The Department of Transportation (DOT) and Transport Canada (TC) require that cylinders made in compliance to their specifications be marked on the crown with certain information. Over the years the format used by Catalina Cylinders and Cliff Impact Division of Catalina Cylinders to display these markings has changed a few times. Shown below is an example of the current crown marking stamped on the standard 20 # CO2 cylinders manufactured at Catalina Cylinders, Garden Grove, CA. Under the example of the crown marking is a list of each of the specific crown markings, followed by a brief explanation of that marking. The descriptions of the markings are the same regardless of the different stamping formats used over the years 

Example of crown markings on a 20 # CO2 Cylinder:

DOT-3AL1800FXXXXXXX M4002 07C08 B20 U18 T25.2LB TC-3ALM124 T11.5KG CATALINA

Marking Description
DOT-3AL The U.S. regulatory authority, the Department of Transportation (DOT), and specification, 3AL, to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance(required mark).
1800 The service pressure, in pounds per square inch (psi), of the cylinder (required mark).
FXXXXXXX The serial number of the cylinder. For Catalina Cylinders, the serial number prefix of “F” is specific to the 20# CO2 cylinders followed by a seven digit number.
M4002 The M-number or Manufacturers Number issued by the DOT to the manufacturer, Catalina Cylinders.
07C08 The original hydrostatic test date of the cylinder, month followed by year, performed at the time of manufacture of the cylinder. The C represents the symbol of the Independent Inspection Agency (IIA) performing the inspection of and certifying the acceptance of the cylinder at the time of manufacture (required mark).
B20 The cylinder identifier (product name). It identifies the market, “B” for beverage, and capacity “20” for a capacity of 20# of CO2 charge, of the cylinder.
U18 The cylinder outlet thread designation as specified in CGA TB-16.
T25.2LB or TW25.0LBS The tare weight (in lbs.) of the empty cylinder package. The empty cylinder package includes the cylinder, the valve, the carrying handle and the snap ring (required mark).
TC-3ALM The Canadian regulatory authority, Transport Canada (TC), and specification, 3ALM, to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance (required mark).
124 The service pressure of the cylinder expressed in metric units, bars (required mark).
CATALINA The name of the manufacturer of the cylinder.
T11.5KG The metric tare weight (in kgs) of the empty cylinder package. The empty cylinder package includes the cylinder, the valve, the carrying handle and the snap ring.

 

Calculation of an Acceptable Dig (Gouge) in a 20 lb. CO2 Cylinder

In CGA pamphlet C-6.1, Standards for Visual Inspection of High Pressure Aluminum Compressed Gas Cylinders, it states in section 4.2 that cuts or digs are acceptable to the following limits:

  1. Unknown wall thickness, maximum dig = .031″ deep
  2. Known wall thickness, maximum dig = 15% of minimum design wall thickness.

    a) A dig in the sidewall could be:

          .320″ (min side wall) x .15% = .048″ deep

    b) A dig in the center of the base (the thinnest part of the base) could be:

          .515 (min base) x .15% = .077″ deep

    c) A dig in the radius and footring at the bottom of the cylinder could be:

                             = * .128″ (1/8″) deep

          * This dig cannot extend up into the sidewall.

  3. The length of the dig must be less than 6.0″.

Crown Markings of a Standard CO2 Cylinder

The Department of Transportation (DOT) and Transport Canada (TC) require that cylinders made in compliance to their specifications be marked on the crown with certain information. Over the years the format used by Catalina Cylinders and Cliff Impact Division of Catalina Cylinders to display these markings has changed a few times. Shown below is an example of the current crown marking stamped on the standard 20 # CO2 cylinders manufactured at Catalina Cylinders, Garden Grove, CA. Under the example of the crown marking is a list of each of the specific crown markings, followed by a brief explanation of that marking. The descriptions of the markings are the same regardless of the different stamping formats used over the years .

Example of crown markings on a 20 # CO2 Cylinder:

DOT-3AL1800FXXXXXXX M4002 07C08 B20 U18 T25.2LB TC-3ALM124 T11.5KG CATALINA

Marking Description
DOT-3AL The U.S. regulatory authority, the Department of Transportation (DOT), and specification, 3AL, to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance(required mark).

1800 The service pressure, in pounds per square inch (psi), of the cylinder (required mark).

FXXXXXXX The serial number of the cylinder. For Catalina Cylinders, the serial number prefix of “F” is specific to the 20# CO2 cylinders followed by a seven digit number.

M4002 The M-number or Manufacturers Number issued by the DOT to the manufacturer, Catalina Cylinders.

07C08 The original hydrostatic test date of the cylinder, month followed by year, performed at the time of manufacture of the cylinder. The C represents the symbol of the Independent Inspection Agency (IIA) performing the inspection of and certifying the acceptance of the cylinder at the time of manufacture (required mark).

B20 The cylinder identifier (product name). It identifies the market, “B” for beverage, and capacity “20” for a capacity of 20# of CO2 charge, of the cylinder.

U18 The cylinder outlet thread designation as specified in CGA TB-16.

T25.2LB or TW25.0LBS The tare weight (in lbs.) of the empty cylinder package. The empty cylinder package includes the cylinder, the valve, the carrying handle and the snap ring (required mark).

TC-3ALM The Canadian regulatory authority, Transport Canada (TC), and specification, 3ALM, to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance (required mark).

124 The service pressure of the cylinder expressed in metric units, bars (required mark).

CATALINA The name of the manufacturer of the cylinder.

T11.5KG The metric tare weight (in kgs) of the empty cylinder package. The empty cylinder package includes the cylinder, the valve, the carrying handle and the snap ring.

Dangers of Heat Exposure to CO2 Cylinders

CO2 cylinders are declared full when the weight of the CO2 charge is equivalent to 68% of the weight of the total water  capacity of the cylinder. This is due to the expansion characteristics of the CO2 charge and the dramatic affects the increase in temperature has on it. As the temperature increases the CO2 charge greatly expands. In a cylinder, since the charge is limited to the capacity  of the cylinder, the expansion is measured as an increase in pressure.

Following is a description of the relationship between the pressure of the CO2 charge in a 20 lb. CO2 cylinder and the affects of exposure to increased temperature has on it.

  • A 20 lb. CO2 cylinder is filled with liquid CO2 by weight. At the time of fill the temperature of the charge is extremely cold and the pressure is around 100 psi.
  • When a fully charged 20 lb. CO2 cylinder, 68% full by water capacity, warms up to room temperature (70 oF), the pressure inside the cylinder increases to 837 psi.
  • When the same cylinder reaches 87.9 oF the  entire charge becomes a gas no matter what the pressure. A fully charged CO2 cylinder at 87.9 oF will have an internal pressure of approximately 1100 psi.
  • At 120 oF the same cylinder will have an internal pressure of nearly 2000 psi. This cylinder at  120 oF now has an internal pressure greater than the marked service pressure of the cylinder and is properly filled, not overfilled.
  • At 155 oF the same cylinder  will reach a pressure of 3000 psi, a pressure great enough activate the safety venting the charge through the safety.

As you can see, when the temperature  of the fully charged cylinder increases, the pressure increases. A temperature of 155 oF, at  which the safety would actuate and vent the contents of the cylinder, is not that high  of a temperature. This temperature could easily be reached in many  different environments (i.e. in a shed or a vehicle on a hot day or in the kitchen of a restaurant, etc.).  Unexpected venting of a cylinder through its safety can be startling to personnel potentially  leading to accidents, property damaged, or personal injury. Coming into contact with the venting of the CO2 charge of a cylinder can cause personal injury such as frostbite.

When using, handling, transporting, and storing a CO2 cylinder, always be aware of the temperature to which the cylinder  will be exposed. This is not just the temperature the cylinder is exposed to at that point in time,  but also the maximum temperature that the cylinder will be exposed to at  any time in it’s service. Catalina Cylinders, along with the CGA, recommends that CO2 cylinders not be used at temperatures exceeding 120 oF.

Dangers of Overfilling CO2 Cylinders


Overfilling a CO2 cylinder, be it an attempt to get longer service out of one charge of a cylinder or be it accidental, can have unexpected and even catastrophic consequences due to the expansion characteristics of the CO2 charge.

We at Catalina Cylinders have heard many times that it is not fair that a CO2 cylinder is deemed full at only 68% of its water capacity, that there appears to be 32%  of its water capacity that is not being used, or wasted, and that this capacity not being used could be used for extended service life of  one CO2 charge. This 32% is not spare, or wasted, capacity. Following are three situations that identify why this 32% of the total water capacity of a CO2 cylinder is not spare, or wasted, capacity.

  1. A 20# CO2 cylinder with a full charge (68% of its water capacity)
    When a fully charged, 68% full by water capacity, 20# CO2 cylinder warms up to room temperature (700 F), the pressure inside the cylinder is 837psi. When the cylinder reaches 87.90 F the entire charge becomes a gas no matter what the pressure. A fully charged CO2 cylinder at 87.90 F will have an internal pressure of approximately 1100psi. At 1200 F a fully charged CO2 cylinder will have an internal pressure of nearly 2000psi,  this is greater than the designed service pressure of 1800psi of the cylinder. Remember that this cylinder at 1200 F has an internal pressure greater than  the marked service pressure of the cylinder and is properly filled, not overfilled. Also note that 1200 F is not an excess temperature  and can quite easily be reached in many different environments (i.e. in a shed or a vehicle on a hot day or in a kitchen).
  2. A 20# CO2 cylinder with a 5# overfill (85% of its water capacity)
    The following would occur if a 20# CO2 cylinder were slightly overfilled with 25# of CO2 charge to increase its service life between fills. When the cylinder and charge warm to room temperature the internal pressure of the cylinder  would be 1430psi. If the cylinder were warmed to 1030 F the cylinder would vent through the safety  device of the valve. This venting would most likely be unexpected since it would not be known when the cylinder would warm to 1030 F.  Unexpected venting through the safety device of a valve has caused property damage and personal injury.
  3. A 20# CO2 cylinder greatly overfilled (95% of its water capacity)
    A 20# CO2 cylinder filled to 95% of it’s capacity, not quite liquid full would vent through its safety prior to the  cylinder reaching room temperature, 700 F. If the safety disc has been altered and reinforced and would not actuate,  the cylinder would rupture between 850 – 950 F. Rupturing cylinders have caused severe property damage and serious personal injury, even loss of life.

Accidental overfilling or overfilling due to inaccurate  equipment (i.e. the scale being used in the filling process not being calibrated or not being able to measure in small enough units  of measure to accurately fill small cylinders) will have the same results as purposely overfilling a cylinder. The affects of accidental overfilling of a small CO2 cylinder can have catastrophic affects as described below.

A 2.5# CO2 cylinder filled accidentally with 1 extra pound of CO2 will be filled to 95% of its capacity. As stated above, a cylinder filled to 95% of its water capacity would vent through  its safety device before the cylinder warms to room temperature.

In summary, never overfill a CO2 cylinder, on purpose or accidentally. The affects of overfilling coupled with the affects of increasing temperature on the CO2 charge, will greatly increase the probability that something catastrophic could happen to property or personnel. Do not take the risk, do not overfill a CO2 cylinder.

Dangers of Overfilling CO2 Paintball Cylinders


Overfilling a CO2 cylinder, be it an attempt to get longer service out of one charge of a cylinder or be it accidental,  can have unexpected and even catastrophic consequences due to the expansion characteristics of the CO2 charge.

We at Catalina Cylinders have heard  many times that it is not fair that a CO2 cylinder is deemed full at only 68%  of its water capacity, that there appears to be 32% of its water capacity that is not being used,  or wasted, and that this capacity not being used could be used for extended service life  of one CO2 charge. This 32% is not spare, or wasted, capacity. Following are three  situations that identify why this 32% of the total water capacity of a CO2 cylinder is not spare, or wasted, capacity.

  1. A 20-ounce CO2 paintball cylinder with a full charge (68% of its water capacity) When a fully charged, 68% full by water capacity, 20-ounce CO2 cylinder warms up to room temperature (70 oF), the pressure  inside the cylinder is 837 psi. When the cylinder reaches 87.9 oF the entire  charge becomes a gas no matter what the pressure. A fully charged CO2 cylinder at 87.9 oF will have an internal  pressure of approximately 1100 psi. At 120 oF a fully charged CO2 cylinder will have an internal pressure of nearly 2000 psi, this is greater  than the designed service pressure of 1800 psi of the cylinder. Remember that this cylinder  at 120 oF has an internal pressure greater than the marked service pressure  of the cylinder and is properly filled, not overfilled. Also note that 120 oF is not an excess  temperature and can quite easily  be reached in many different environments (i.e. in a shed or a vehicle on a hot day or in a kitchen).
  2. A 20-ounce CO2 paintball cylinder with a 5-ounce overfill (85% of its water capacity)
    The following would occur if a 20-ounce CO2 cylinder were slightly overfilled with 25 ounces of CO2 charge to increase its service life between fills.  When the cylinder and charge warm to room temperature the internal pressure  of the cylinder would be 1430 psi. If the cylinder were warmed to 103 oF  the cylinder would vent through the safety device of the valve. This venting would most likely  be unexpected since it would not be known when the cylinder would warm to 103 oF.  Unexpected venting through the safety device of a valve has caused property damage and personal injury.
  3. A 20-ounce CO2 paintball cylinder greatly overfilled (95% of its water capacity)
    A 20-ounce CO2 cylinder filled to 95% of it’s capacity,  not quite liquid full would vent through its safety prior to the cylinder reaching room temperature,  70 oF. If the safety disc has been altered and reinforced and would  not actuate, the cylinder would rupture between 85 o – 95 oF. Rupturing cylinders  have caused  severe property damage and serious personal injury, even loss of life.

Accidental overfilling or  overfilling due to inaccurate equipment (i.e. the scale being used in the filling process not being  calibrated or not being able to measure in small enough units of measure to accurately fill  small cylinders) will have the same results as purposely overfilling a cylinder. The affects of accidental overfilling of a small CO2 cylinder can have catastrophic affects as described below.

A 7-ounce CO2 paintball cylinder filled accidentally with 2.8 extra ounces of CO2 will be filled to 95% of its capacity. As stated above, a cylinder  filled to 95% of its water capacity would vent through its safety device before the cylinder warms to room temperature.

In summary, never overfill a CO2 cylinder, on purpose or accidentally. The affects  of overfilling coupled with the affects of increasing temperature on the CO2 charge, will greatly increase the probability  that something catastrophic could happen to property or personnel. Do not take the risk, do not overfill a CO2 cylinder.

Filling of CO2Cylinders

Catalina Cylinders recommends
that trained personnel fill CO2 cylinders. CGA pamphlets G-6; Carbon
Dioxide and G-6.3;  Carbon Dioxide Cylinder Filling and Handling
Procedures and 49CFR 173.304; Charging of Cylinders with  Liquefied
Compressed Gas be referenced, or included in, the training process and the  following
items be incorporated into any CO2 cylinder filling procedure.

  1. Perform a quick external inspection  of the cylinder and
    valve as noted in Catalina Cylinders’ technical support document, CO2
    Cylinder Inspection at the Time of Each Fill
    .
  2. Never fill a damaged cylinder, a cylinder  with a damaged
    valve, or a cylinder with a valve safety relief device that appears to be
    altered.
  3. Never fill or “top off” a partially filled CO2 cylinder.
  4. Position the cylinder to be  emptied of its remaining contents.
    If the cylinder is not equipped with a dip tube the cylinder 
    should be inverted. Rotate the cylinder so the valve port is facing away from
    all personnel and equipment.
  5. After moving or positioning the  cylinder for emptying,
    allow a few minutes for any residual CO2 charge to settle before
    emptying the cylinder. Slowly open the valve, emptying any remaining charge 
    and other contents (i.e. moisture, contamination, corrosion, etc.) from the
    cylinder. Close the valve.
  6. If any content other than the CO2 charge, including any unusual
    odor, is discharged from the cylinder when emptying  the cylinder,
    the cylinder should not be filled and should be subjected to further inspection
    and followed by internal cleaning.
  7. Place the cylinder on a calibrated scale.  The scale should
    be able to measure the weight of the cylinder to 3 significant 
    digits (i.e. XX.X lbs. or X.XX lbs. depending on the size of the cylinder).
  8. Secure the connection (filling) hose to the valve.
  9. Record the weight of the connected empty cylinder to 3 significant digits.
  10. Add this weight  to the maximum allowable CO2 charge weight (capacity)
    for this cylinder. Many cylinders are marked with thisCO2 on the
    crown of the cylinder. This will be  the target fill weight, cylinlder wieght
    when fully charged,at the end of the fill.
  11. Open the valve slowly and fill the cylinder slow  enough
    to accurately monitor the scale as to not exceed the target fill weight.
  12. Stop the fill by closing the cylinder valve  when the cylinder
    on the scale has reached the target fill weight.
  13. With the hose still connected, verify  the final weight
    is the same as the target fill weight.
  14. If the cylinder has been overfilled, discharge the overfill immediately
    – do not wait.

Never overfill a CO2 cylinder. Never fill a CO2 cylinder
with a charge greater than the target fill weight marked on the crown of the cylinder.
Overfilling a CO2 cylinder, even by a slight amount, can cause the
safety release device to actuate and discharge CO2 unexpectedly. Unexpected
discharge of CO2 gas through the safety relief device has been known
to cause accidents, sometimes leading to personnel injury or property damage.

Handling of CO2 Cylinders

Catalina Cylinders recommends that anyone handling CO2 cylinders should be aware of the hazards associated with CO2 and be trained in safe practices of handling CO2 cylinders. All practices of handling CO2 cylinders ought to include or reference information from CGA pamphlets G-6;  Carbon Dioxide and G-6.3; Carbon Dioxide Cylinder Filling and Handling Procedures.

Catalina Cylinders has compiled  the following list of items that should be included in any safe handling practice of CO2 cylinders.

  1. Only trained personnel should handle CO2 cylinders. Trained personnel should be aware of the hazards associated with CO2. CO2 discharged from a cylinder is extremely cold and can cause injury if it comes into contact with personnel.
  2. CO2 cylinders should only be handled with care. Never drag or drop cylinders.
  3. Never attempt to handle a leaking CO2 cylinder.
  4. CO2 cylinder should never be handled in areas of extreme heat (125 oF or greater).
  5. The valve should always be  closed when handling a cylinder.
  6. If a cylinder is fitted with a valve cap,  always verify the cap is secure before handling.
  7. If a cylinder is fitted with  a carrying handle, always verify the carrying handle is secure and not broken  before handling. Never handle a cylinder by a broken carrying handle.
  8. Be aware that cylinders  that have been in service may have sharp edges from previous rough handling.  Visually inspect the cylinder for sharp edges prior to handling  the cylinder with your hands.
  9. When lifting a cylinder, use  proper lifting techniques.
  10. When handling a cylinder with  equipment, make sure the equipment does not scar or damage the cylinder or valve.
  11. When using a cart to handle cylinders, always secure the cylinder to the cart.
  12. After handling a cylinder, always  transport and/or store the cylinder in accordance with good safe transporting and/or storing practices.

Including the above items in all  practices for handling CO2 cylinders should enhance the safety of all  personnel, equipment and property.

Hydrostatic Re-Testing and Inspection of CO2 Cylinders


Catalina Cylinders recommends all CO2 cylinders be given a quick external visual inspection prior to each fill and the items noted in Catalina Cylinders technical support document, Inspection of CO2 Cylinders Prior to Each Fill, be included in this inspection.

All DOT-3AL marked CO2 cylinders are to be inspected and hydrostatically re-tested every five years as required in CFR  Title 49 Part 180.205(c). Cylinders still with charge at the time the 5 year re-test is due, do not have to be re-tested  until the charge is used, but prior to the re-filling of the cylinders.

Visual inspection, at the time of hydrostatic re-testing,  must be performed by a DOT licensed re-test agency. Visual inspection  must be performed in accordance with CGA pamphlet C-6.1; Standards for Visual Inspection  of High Pressure Aluminum Compressed Gas Cylinders. Internal and external visual  inspection of a cylinder should be performed prior to hydrostatic re-testing.

Hydrostatic re-testing must be performed by  a DOT licensed re-test agency. Hydrostatic re-testing must be performed in accordance with  CGA Pamphlet C-1; Methods for Hydrostatic Testing of Compressed Gas Cylinders.  Once a cylinder has successfully passed all visual inspection and hydrostatic  re-test requirements, it is to be permanently marked with the re-test date, month and year,  and licensed re-test agency’s number in the proximity of the previous hydrostatic test date.  No cylinder is to be marked with the licensed re-test agency’s number until  the cylinder has passed all visual inspection and hydrostatic re-test requirements. No  cylinder is to be marked with a licensed re-test agency number by any other person or  agency other than the personnel of the licensed re-test agency.

DOT-3AL marked cylinders used in countries  other than the United States must be inspected and hydrostatically re-tested  in accordance with the rules, regulations, specifications and methods of that country.  If, in other countries, no such rules, regulation, specifications and methods  exist, Catalina Cylinders recommends that the DOT-3AL marked cylinders be visually inspected  in accordance with all applicable DOT specifications and CGA pamphlets.

The CGA pamphlets noted above, as well as all other CGA pamphlets,  can be attained from the CGA for a nominal fee. You can reach the CGA at:


Tel: 703 412-0900
Fax: 703 412-0128 Website: www.cganet.com

Transporting (Shipping) of CO2 Cylinders


Catalina Cylinders recommends that anyone transporting CO2 cylinders should be aware of the hazards associated with CO2 and be trained in safe practices of transporting CO2 cylinders. All practices of transporting CO2 cylinders must be in compliance with and ought to include or reference information from 49 CFR 173.302; General Requirements  For Shipment of Compressed Gases in Cylinders and Spherical Pressure Vessels,  49 CFR 173.304; Charging of Cylinders With Liquefied Compressed Gas, and  CGA pamphlet G-6.3; Carbon Dioxide Cylinder Filling and Handling Procedures. Catalina Cylinders  has compiled the following list of items that should be included in all safe practices of transporting CO2 cylinders.

  1. Never transport a filled CO2 cylinder in a passenger vehicle.
  2. Cylinders should never be transported in an  enclosed vehicle unless the driver is separated from the cargo by a gas tight barrier.
  3. Cylinders should be transported in a  continuously cool place. Do not transport cylinders adjacent to any source of heat,  intermittent or continuous. Safety relief devices of CO2 cylinders are designed to  operate when the pressure of the cylinder exceeds 2800 – 3000 psi (depending on the  design of the safety relief device). A properly charged CO2 cylinder could vent through its safety  relief device at approximately 150 oF (65.6 oC). A slightly overfilled CO2 cylinder could vent through its safety relief  device when exposed to a much lower temperature. The CGA recommends that CO2 cylinders be stored in areas with a temperature less than 125 oF (51.7 oC).
  4. Do not transport a leaking cylinder.
  5. Damaged cylinders should only be transported without fill and marked “DAMAGED”.
  6. Empty CO2 cylinders should be transported with their valves tightly closed.
  7. Cylinders, which have been manufactured  to accommodate a carrying handle or a protective cap, should be transported  with these accessories in place. Do not transport cylinders with broken carrying handles.
  8. Cylinders can be transported standing  on their base or lying on their side. Catalina Cylinders recommends that the cylinders  be transported as designed, standing on their flat base. The CGA recommends  that cylinders that are shipped never be stacked on top of each other.
  9. All cylinders, after being loaded for transit,  when in transit, and when waiting for unloading after transit should be  secured by adequate means to protect the cylinders. The means of securing should be  sufficient to hold the cylinders in place, yet not cause damage to the cylinders.
  10. If a cylinder is determined to be leaking or venting CO2 while in transit:
    • Immediately pull the vehicle over  to the side of the road. Do not try to continue driving, or remain in, the vehicle  while the cylinder is leaking or venting. Inhalation of as little as 3% CO2 gas can cause uncomfortable physiological effects. Inhalations of large amounts of CO2 gas, 10% and above, can cause unconsciousness (in less than 1 minute) and possibly death.
    • Do not try to stop the cylinder from leaking or venting. Leaking or venting CO2 gas can cause frostbite.
    • Do not try removing a leaking or venting cylinder from a vehicle.

Including the above items in all practices for transporting CO2 cylinders should enhance the safety of all personnel, equipment and property.

Valving of CO2 Cylinders


Catalina Cylinders recommends that anyone valving CO2 cylinders should be aware of the hazards associated with CO2 and be trained in safe practices of valving CO2 cylinders. Catalina Cylinders has compiled the following  list of items that should be included in all safe practices for the valving CO2 cylinders.

Valve Removal

  1. Verify the cylinder is free of  charge and not under pressure before attempting to remove the valve.
  2. Only discharge the remaining charge of a CO2 cylinder in a well ventilated area.
  3. Position the cylinder with outlet port  of the valve facing away from all personnel and/or equipment.
  4. Slightly (“crack”) open the handwheel  of the valve discharging or releasing the residual CO2 charge. Leave the  handwheel of the valve open throughout the valve removal process.
  5. Fitting a wrench snugly to the valve body,  use force turning the wrench counter clockwise to loosen the valve.
  6. If the valve cannot be loosened, stop,  remove the wrench and apply a small amount of penetrating release agent at the  junction of the valve and cylinder and allow time, 5 – 15 minutes, for the release agent to penetrate the junction.
  7. Again attempt to loosen the valve. It may take  some time to work the valve free from the cylinder. If a valve is really stuck  and a release agent is used, you may have to stop periodically in the removal process and  reapply the release agent and allow time for the newly applied release agent to work.

Valve Insertion

  1. Verify that the cylinder was manufactured for CO2 service.
  2. Verify the valve is a CGA recommended CO2 valve.
  3. Verify that the safety device is the  correct safety device, is rated at the test pressure of the cylinder, and has not been actuated or altered (tampered with).
    • Never tamper with the safety device.  If the safety device appears to be tampered with, do not use the valve.
    • Never replace the safety device of a valve on a cylinder that is charged.
    • Catalina Cylinders recommends when  replacing a safety device replace the whole safety device assembly.
    • If a safety device has been actuated  and the cylinder has vented, then the cylinder may have been overfilled or exposed to high heat.
  4. Inspect the inlet and outlet threads of the  valve and the threads and o-ring gland of the cylinder for damage. If either the valve  or cylinder has damage to the threads or the o-ring gland area, do not insert the valve into the cylinder.
  5. Inspect the cylinder threads and the cylinder  internally verifying that the cylinder is free of all contaminants (i.e. release agents,  moisture, soils, corrosion, etc.). Do not proceed if you feel the cylinder  may be contaminated. Reference Catalina Cylinders Technical Support Document,  Cylinder Cleaning, for common methods of cleaning a cylinder.
  6. Catalina Cylinders recommends the  insertion of a new buna-N o-ring, with a hardness of 90 shore, every time the valve  of a cylinder is removed and re-installed. Verify that the new o-ring  is free of all damage. Following are the buna-N o-ring sizes for the different inlet thread sizes of CGA valves.
    Thread Designation Valve Designation Buna-N O-ring Size
    .625 – 18 UNF CGA 323 206
    .750 – 16 UNF CGA 320 210
    1.125 – 12 UNF CGA 320 216
  7. Catalina Cylinders has found it easiest  to place the o-ring on the valve and then insert the valve into the cylinder tightening  the valve hand tight. Placing the o-ring in the o-ring gland of the cylinder and  then inserting the valve is known to have damaged the o-ring in some instances.
  8. Final tightening of the valve should be done  with a calibrated torque wrench to the recommended torque values noted as follows:
    Thread Catalina Cylinders Catalina Cylinders
    Designation Recommended Torque Maximum Torque
    .625 – 18 UNF 40 lbf-ft 50 lbf-ft
    .750 – 16 UNF 40 lbf-ft 50 lbf-ft
    1.125 – 12 UNF 40 lbf-ft 50 lbf-ft
  9. Close the valve with no more than 1 lbf-ft torque.

Inspection of CO2 Cylinders Prior to Each Fill


Catalina Cylinders recommends that all CO2 cylinders be subjected to a quick external inspection of the cylinder and  valve prior to each fill. This inspection may identify conditions of the cylinder and/or  valve that have decreased the integrity of the cylinder and possibly be an extremely dangerous  situation if the cylinder were filled. Following are items that Catalina Cylinders recommends  be included in the quick external inspection practice of any CO2 cylinder prior to filling.

  1. Inspect the crown markings on the cylinder. Verify that the cylinder is a CO2 cylinder and that the cylinder has been  hydrostatically re-tested within the last 5 years of the most recent hydrostatic test date.
  2. Inspect the cylinder for signs of damage and excessive wear  (i.e. dents, gouges, drag marks, etc.). Acceptable gouge limits for a 20 lb. CO2 cylinder are listed in Catalina Cylinders’ Technical Support Document,  Calculation of an Acceptable Dig (Gouge) in a 20 lb. CO2 Cylinder.
  3. Inspect the cylinder for sign of  exposure to high heat or fire. Visible signs of exposure to high heat or fire include:
    • Charring, blistering, or discoloration of the cylinder paint or labels,
    • Distortion of the cylinder body,
    • Melting of any components (i.e. the valve handwheel, the carrying handle, etc.) or,
    • Activation of the valve pressure relief device.

    Any cylinder that shows visible signs of being  exposed to high heat or fire must not be filled, pulled from service, and subjected to a more thorough inspection.

  4. Inspect the safety relief device of the valve.  Verify that the safety relief device has not been actuated or altered.  Do not fill a cylinder that has an actuated or altered safety relief device.
  5. Inspect the valve. Verify that  the valve is the right type of valve for the cylinder. Verify the valve is seated completely  (tight) into the cylinder. Verify the handwheel and outlet threads of the valve are not  damaged. Slightly open “crack” the handwheel of the valve to check the  operation of the valve and to check cylinder for charge. Do not fill a cylinder that has  a damaged valve.
    The above noted items that Catalina Cylinders recommends to be  performed as a quick external inspection of a cylinder prior to filling can be supported  by any other means of inspection that you may feel is necessary to ensure that a cylinder is acceptable to fill.

If you have any questions about a cylinder’s  integrity, please call Catalina Cylinders and discuss your concerns before filling the cylinder.

Storing of CO2 Cylinders


Catalina Cylinders recommends that anyone storing CO2 cylinders should be aware of the hazards associated with CO2 and be trained in safe practices of storing CO2 cylinders. All practices of storing CO2 cylinders ought to include or reference information from CGA pamphlets G-6; Carbon Dioxide and G-6.3;  Carbon Dioxide Cylinder Filling and Handling Procedures. Catalina Cylinders has compiled  the following list of items that should be included in any safe storage practice of CO2 cylinders.

  1. CO2 cylinders should always be stored in a specified area. The storage area should:
    • Be well ventilated. CO2 gas in small concentrations, as little as 15%, can cause unconsciousness in less than one minute.
    • Be selected away from the edge of  any elevated areas. Cylinders falling from elevated areas can cause damage to  the cylinder, valve or property or injury to personnel.
    • Be selected away from, or protected from,  areas of high traffic. Areas of high traffic only increase the chance of an accident occurring.
    • Be dry and free of a corrosive atmosphere.
    • Have adequate means to secure all  cylinders stored in the area. The means of securing should be sufficient to hold  the cylinders in place, yet not cause damage to the cylinders.
    • Be a continuously cool place. Do not store  cylinders adjacent to any source of heat, intermittent or continuous. Safety relief devices of CO2 cylinders are designed to operate when the  pressure of the cylinder exceeds 2800 – 3000 psi (depending on the design of  the safety relief device). A properly charged CO2 cylinder could vent through it’s safety  relief device at approximately 150 oF (65.6 oC). A slightly overfilled CO2 cylinder could vent through its safety relief device when exposed to  a much lower temperature. The CGA recommends that CO2 cylinders be stored in areas with a temperature less than 125 oF (51.7 oC).

  2. Never store a charged CO2 cylinder in a passenger vehicle or in the cab portion of any vehicle.
  3. Empty CO2 cylinders should be stored with the valve tightly closed.
  4. Cylinders can be stored standing on  their base or lying on their side. Catalina Cylinders recommends that the cylinders  be stored as designed, standing on their flat base.
  5. Cylinders should not be stored where they might become part of an electrical circuit.
  6. Cylinders, which have been manufactured  to accommodate a valve protective carrying handle or a protective cap,  should be stored with these accessories in place.

Including the above items in all practices for storing CO2 cylinders should enhance the safety of all personnel, equipment and property.

All Markets (12)

As-Manufactured Paint Warranty

Catalina Cylinders takes pride in the quality of finish of the painted cylinders it manufactures. The paint finish on Catalina Cylinders’ cylinders should last many years with proper care and maintenance.
Catalina Cylinders will warranty the paint on its cylinders as follows:

  1. Cylinders painted with “powder” paint have the following warranty:
  2. One year warranty against unusual corrosion from the original hydro test date
  3. Two year warranty against peeling paint from the original hydro test date.
  4. Cylinders painted with fluorescent (bright or neon) pink, yellow and green colors are under warranty against fade for 6 months. Cylinders exhibiting excessive wear are not under warranty against fading.
  5. Cylinders painted with clear paint are under warranty against natural darkening, not exposed to fire, for the life of the paint. Cylinders exhibiting excessive wear are not under warranty against natural darkening.
  6. As-received new cylinders are under warranty to be without chips and gouges to the paint (caused by the manufacturer).

Cylinders which have unacceptable paint finishes as described above are within the warranty time limits as noted above will be sanded and repainted at no cost to the customer.

Sorry, damage to the paint that occurs during shipping, or after, is not covered by warranty of Catalina Cylinders. 

Bulged Cylinders Versus Bowed Cylinders

There are a few reasons for inspecting a cylinder with a straight edge. The two main reasons are for identifying a bulged cylinder and a bowed cylinder.

A Bulged Cylinder

A bulged cylinder will exhibit at least some area of its sidewall being convexed, curved outward. It is possible for the entire sidewall of the cylinder to be bulged, curved outward. The bulge is readily identified as a hump in the sidewall of the cylinder when checking with a straight edge. A bulged cylinder indicates that the metal has yielded and is no longer safe for use. A bulged cylinder should be condemned.

It is very rare for a cylinder to be bulged. A cylinder that is bulged has usually been overheated or overfilled.

A Bowed Cylinder

A bowed cylinder will exhibit an area of the sidewall that is convexed, curved outward, and also an area, 180� opposite the convex side, that is concaved, curved inward. A bowed cylinder is sometimes identified as exhibiting a banana affect. A bowed cylinder can be verified by identifying the convexed, humped, side of the cylinder with a straight edge, then rotating the cylinder 180 and verifying this side of the cylinder is concaved, recessed from the straight edge.

A bowed cylinder sometimes occurs due to variations in the manufacturing process.

For a standard 3000 psi 80 cuft scuba cylinder, Catalina Cylinders considers a bow measured on the concave side of the cylinder acceptable if .085″ or less. 

Cylinder Cleaning

One of the most common questions asked of Catalina Cylinders is, “How do we clean aluminum cylinders which have been in service?” Catalina Cylinders has found the following cleaning practices to be effective in the cleaning of aluminum cylinders. The cleaning practices have been broken down into two groups, external and internal, with different types of conditions requiring cleaning listed under each group.

External

General In-service Soiling

Wash with a dish washing soap and rinse. Dry the cylinder after rinsing.


Chipping Paint or Minor Corrosion

 

Removal of loose paint and minor corrosion by-products by scrapping with a scrapper or putty knife is acceptable.

 

If complete paint removal from a cylinder is desired, Catalina Cylinders recommends that paint be removed from aluminum cylinders by the use of paint strippers. Catalina Cylinders has found that gel-type strippers work well in removing old paint and do not remove metal from the cylinder when properly used. Use gel strippers that are compatible with aluminum. Take great care to ensure that the gel-type stripper does not enter the cylinder.

 

Catalina Cylinders does not recommend cleaning of cylinders by means of sanding or abrasive blasting. Removal of paint or minor corrosion from a cylinder by sanding or abrasive blasting can also remove metal thus reducing the wall thickness of the cylinder and reducing the integrity of the cylinder. If sanding or abrasive blasting is used to clean a cylinder, the remaining wall thickness after sanding or abrasive blasting is complete must be checked by suitable means (i.e. a U.T. gauge) to guarantee the minimum remaining wall thickness is greater than the minimum design wall thickness.

 

Catalina Cylinders strongly recommends against the use of any method of exposure to high heat (i.e. flame, oven, etc.), in excess of 265 oF, for any amount of time in the removal of paint from aluminum cylinders.


Internal

Moisture and Light Soils

 

Steam clean with soft water and blow dry with forced air if possible. If not possible, fill cylinder with hot soft water and tumble the cylinder for a few minutes. The hotter the temperature of the water introduced into the cylinder increases the capability of the hot cylinder to aid in the drying of the cylinder by evaporation. Follow the tumbling with hot soft water by 1 minute of forced air blow-drying. Always make sure the air used in blow drying a cylinder is dry and free of contaminates (filtered). Drying the cylinder completely after cleaning is necessary to reduce the chance of corrosion from occurring.


Grease, Oil and Lubricants

 

Tumble the cylinder for 5 minutes with a solution of a small amount of dish washing soap and hot soft water. Make sure the amount of solution is sufficient to wet the entire inside surface of the cylinder. Rinse the cylinder with hot soft water. Several rinses may be required to remove all the soapy solution. Repeat this sequence as often as needed. Drying the cylinder completely after cleaning is necessary to reduce the chance of corrosion from occurring.


Odors

 

For a few minutes wet the entire inside of the cylinder with a solution of baking soda and soft water, approximately 1 cup of baking soda to 1 gallon of water. Make sure the entire inside surface is wetted by the solution. Next, rinse the cylinder with soft water. Follow this with a few minutes of wetting the entire inside surface of the cylinder with a solution of vinegar and water, approximately on 1/2 cup of household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Then rinse the cylinder completely with water until all odor of vinegar is gone. If original odor persist repeat this operation as many times as necessary. Drying the cylinder completely after cleaning is necessary to reduce the chance of corrosion from occurring.


Corrosion and Heavy Soils

Tumble the cylinder with a slurry of aluminum oxide pellets, water and dish washing soap. The ratio of aluminum oxide pellets to water should be about 3 to 2. To thoroughly treat the entire surface when tumbling, a cylinder should be approximately half full of slurry prior to tumbling. For a standard 3000psi 80 cu ft cylinder, a slurry of 17 cups aluminum oxide pellets, 12 cups of water and a small amount of dish washing soap rotated for 15 to 30 minutes, works well at removing mild corrosion by-products or heavy soils in most cases. Always thoroughly rinse and dry the cylinder after tumbling is complete. Drying the cylinder completely after cleaning is necessary to reduce the chance of corrosion from occurring.


Please note that after all cleaning operations it is recommended that the cylinder be dried completely to reduce the chance of corrosion from occurring. 

Eddy Current Inspection of Aluminum Cylinders

All cylinders manufactured by Catalina Cylinders, have been and are being manufactured form aluminum alloy 6061, never aluminum alloy 6351.

Eddy current inspection of 6061 aluminum alloy cylinders at the time of the 5 year hydrostatic retest or annual visual inspection in the case of SCUBA cylinders is not required by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) or the Canadian agency Transport Canada (TC).

Catalina Cylinders does not require eddy current inspection of the threads of their 6061 aluminum alloy cylinders.

High Temperature Exposure of Aluminum Cylinders

Aluminum cylinders known to have been exposed to overheating or showing evidence of having been overheated, with overheating being a cylinder metal temperature in excess of 350°F, must be condemned per 49 CFR 180.205 (i) (viii). No testing for acceptance or re-heat treatment is authorized.

In CGA pamphlet C-6.1; Standards For Visual Inspection of High Pressure Aluminum Gas Cylinders, it states that cylinders heated to cylinder metal temperatures in excess of 350°F (176°C) must be condemned.

Common evidence of exposure to overheating that may heat the metal temperature to 350°F (176°C) include:

  • charring, blistering, or discoloration of the cylinder paint or protective coatings;
  • distortion of the cylinder;
  • melting of non-metallic (i.e. plastic, etc.) valve components;
  • charring or burning of labels;
  • activation of valve pressure relief device; or
  • activation of the heat indication system.

Catalina Cylinders recommends that if there is evidence, or it is believed, that a cylinder has been exposed to overheating but the temperature of metal of the cylinder is not believed to have reached 350°F (176°C) for any duration of time, the cylinder must still be subjected to hydrostatic testing or condemned. A cylinder that has been exposed to temperatures great enough to change the temper of the cylinder could show an increase in total or permanent expansion as measured during hydrostatic testing. Cylinders showing unusually high total expansion or exceeding the regulatory limits for the relationship of permanent expansion to total expansion (i.e. DOT = 10% and TC = 6%) should be condemned.

Non-Magnetic Properties Of DOT-3AL / TC-3ALM Aluminum Cylinders

All DOT 3AL / TC-3ALM 6061 aluminum cylinders manufactured by Catalina Cylinders and Cliff Division of Catalina Cylinders are non-magnetic. This includes all DOT-3AL /TC-3ALM medical oxygen cylinders.

Please consult the appropriate cylinder accessory manufacturer for the magnetic properties of any or all of the cylinder accessories (i.e. valves, caps, carrying handles, snap rings, regulators, etc.).

Non-magnetic medical valves are currently available. Contact Catalina Cylinders Customer Service for information on suppliers of non-magnetic medical valves.

Non-Reversible Heat Indicating Devices

Aluminum cylinders should not be exposed to elevated temperatures, 350°F (176°C) or greater, or the action of fire for any period of time. In section (f) (4) of 49 CFR part 173.34, DOT-3AL and DOT-4E, aluminum cylinders subjected to fire must be removed from service. In CGA pamphlet C-6.1; Standards For Visual Inspection of High Pressure Aluminum Gas Cylinders, it states that cylinders heated to metal temperatures in excess of 350°F (176°C) must be condemned.

The CGA recognizes the effects of high temperature on aluminum cylinders and issued a safety bulletin SB-22; Aluminum Cylinders – Guidelines for a Heat Exposure Indicating System. In this safety bulletin the use of heat indicating devices on aluminum cylinders is only a recommended practice and is not a requirement by the CGA or any DOT specification. However, in some applications, Catalina Cylinders believes the use of such devices makes sense. CGA’s safety bulletin SB-22 identifies many applicable parameters of a heat indicating system but does not identify sources of these systems.

Following are a few sources of different types of heat (temperature) indicating systems.

American Thermal Instruments, Inc.
Phone: 800 648-6339
Fax: 937 252-6509
Web: www.americanthermal.com

Omega Engineering Incorporated
The Temperature Handbook
Temperature indicating labels, Crayons, cements, and paints
Phone: 203 359-1660
Fax: 800 848-4271
E-mail: temp@omega.com
Web: www.omega.com

McMaster Carr
Temperature indicating labels, Crayons, and pellets
Phone: 562 692-5911
Fax: 562 695-2323
E-mail: la.sales@mcmaster.com
Web: www.mcmaster.com

Telatemp Corp.
Temperature indicating devices
Phone: 714 879-2901
Fax: 714 870-8136
E-mail: techsales@telatemp.com
Web: www.telatemp.com

Catalina Cylinders recommends that when choosing a heat indicating device, make sure you select a non-reversible temperature indicating device and that the device is compatible with the environment in which the cylinder will be used.

Paint Removal from Aluminum Cylinders

Catalina Cylinders recommends that paint be removed from aluminum cylinders by the use of gel-type (non-caustic) paint strippers instead of sanding, abrasive blasting, or any methods of exposure to heat. Removal of paint from a cylinder by sanding or abrasive blasting can also remove metal thus reducing the wall thickness of the cylinder and reducing the integrity of the cylinder.

Catalina Cylinders has found that gel-type (non-caustic) strippers work well in removing old paint and do not remove metal from the cylinder when properly used. Gel-type (non-caustic) paint strippers are commonly found at your local hardware or paint stores.

Do not use caustic strippers to remove paint from aluminum cylinders. Make sure the gel-type paint stripper selected is compatible with aluminum.

Always replace the cylinder warning label after refinishing a cylinder. Replacement cylinder warning labels are available from Catalina Cylinders Customer Service Department upon request.

Requalifying of Aluminum Cylinders

The requalification of cylinders was formally known as the retesting of cylinders. Requalification is done to ensure that a cylinder is still acceptable to continue to be used as a pressure vessel to transport hazardous material. DOT requalifying of a cylinder and the marking thereof are to be performed by an approved DOT requalification facility that has been issued a DOT Requalifiaction Identification Number (RIN). The requirements for the requalifying of DOT cylinders in the US are identified in Title 49 of the Code Of Federal Regulations (CFR) in part 180, “Continuing Qualification and Maintenance Of Packaging” and any applicable DOT exemption.

The requalifying requirements of any cylinder are specific to the DOT specification and/or exemption to which the cylinder was manufactured. The DOT specification and/or exemption number are stamped on the crown of the cylinder. Cylinders manufactured by Catalina Cylinders are marked with “M4002” on the crown of the cylinders. Cylinders manufactured by Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division are marked with “CLIFFDIV” on the crown of the cylinder.

The most basic of the retesting requirements for cylinders manufactured by Catalina Cylinders and Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division are identified below.

DOT-3AL Cylinders (Catalina Cylinders and Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division)

Requalifying required every five (5) years. Requalifying of a cylinder is to be performed five (5) years, as per Table 1 “Requalification of Cylinders” in 49CFR 180.209, after the original manufacturing hydrostatic test date stamped on the crown of the cylinder. Please note the 12 year requalification cycle notated in Table 1 is only for “dry” fire extinguishers as noted in 49CFR 180.209(j). In section 180.205 (c) it states that a cylinder that is filled before the retest date may remain in service until it is emptied of its charge. In other words, a cylinder that currently has a charge when the 5 year retest date occurs does not have to be drained of its charge and retested. The charge can be used and the cylinder retested after the charge has been used.

The requalifying specified in part 180 consists of an internal inspection and hydrostatic retesting of the cylinder at a pressure equivalent to 5/3 the service pressure of the cylinder.

Catalina Cylinders and Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division are not requalifiers of cylinders to the general public. If you go to this website, https://portal.phmsa.dot.gov/rinlocator, you will find a complete list of DOT approved retesters throughout the country.

There are a few companies that have DOT exemptions to requalify cylinders by Ultrasonic Examination (UE) of the cylinders instead of visually inspecting and hydrostatically retesting the cylinders. In some cases there are benefits to this type of requalifying.

DOT-3AL Cylinders “2 by 2 rule” (Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division only)

Requalification not required per the note under table 1 in 49CFR part 180.205. The note reads, “Any cylinder not exceeding two (2) inches in outside diameter and less than two (2) feet in length is exempt from volumetric expansion testing.”

DOT-39 Cylinders (Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division only)

These are non-refillable cylinders and do not require requalifying..

E-7737 (Aluminum DOT-3E) Cylinders (Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division only)

Requalifying is not required.

Eddy current inspection of the threads in 6061 aluminum cylinders is not required by the DOT and is not mandated as necessary by Catalina Cylinders. Cylinders manufactured by Catalina Cylinders and Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division have only been manufactured from aluminum alloy 6061, not aluminum alloy 6351, and do not require any special testing or inspection of the neck, threads or shoulder of the cylinders.

All cylinders that have been successfully requalified will have the date of the retest (month and year) stamped in the crown of the cylinder with the RIN of the DOT approved requalification facility stamped between the month and year of the retest date.

If you have any questions with regards to the requalifying of cylinders manufactured by Catalina Cylinders or Cliff Impact please do not hesitate in contacting us directly.

Return Authorization Policy

The Replacement Policy

Products (i.e. cylinders, impacts, and others) manufactured by Catalina Cylinders and Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division will be replaced at no cost to the customer if, after evaluation of the product at the appropriate manufacturing facility, the product is determined to have a manufacturing defect. Neither Catalina Cylinders nor Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division shall pay for shipment of products being returned to our facilities unless agreed to otherwise prior to the returning of the products. Catalina Cylinders or Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division shall pay for shipment of returned or replaced products to the customer.

Cylinders manufactured by the “Catalina Cylinder Corporation” in December 1991 or before will be replaced at a nominal cost to the customer if, after evaluation of the cylinder at Catalina Cylinders, the cylinder is determined to have a defect condemning the cylinder. The nominal replacement cost for SCUBA cylinders is referenced in the table below.

CYLINDER TYPE REPLACEMENT COST

Compact Series (3300 psi) SCUBA Cylinder $69.00
Standard Series (3000 psi) SCUBA Cylinder $59.00
By contacting Catalina Cylinders, the nominal replacement cost for all other types of cylinders can be obtained. As stated above, the customer shall pay for shipment of the cylinder being returned to Catalina Cylinders. Catalina Cylinders shall pay for shipment of the replacement cylinder to the customer.

All returned products which are deemed “acceptable as manufactured” and “acceptable for service”, after evaluation at the appropriate facility, will be returned to the customer with documentation explaining the findings of the evaluation. Catalina Cylinders or Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division will pay for shipment of products returned back to the customer.

Contacting Catalina Cylinders or Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division

If at any time the integrity of a product manufactured by Catalina Cylinders or Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division is in question, we request you immediately contact appropriate manufacturing facility,

Catalina Cylinders at (714) 890-0999 or

Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division at (757) 896-9100,
and ask to speak with a Return Authorization (RA) representative. Our RA office hours are Monday through Friday 8:00am – 5:00pm PST for Catalina Cylinders and 8:00am – 5:00pm EST for Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division.

Before calling, please have available the product identification marking and an explanation of your concerns about the product. For cylinders the product identification marking would be the complete crown stamping. Having this information available at the time of the call will help expedite the resolution to your concerns. The information you provide the RA representative will determine if a RA report should be generated and the products returned to Catalina Cylinders or Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division.

Issuing a RA Number

If the RA representative determines that the product of concern should be returned for evaluation, a RA number will be issued and a RA report generated. A product returned against a RA number is called a RA product.

Returning a RA Product

Do not return a product to Catalina Cylinders for evaluation or replacement without first talking to a Catalina Cylinders or a Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division RA representative and having a RA number issued against the product.

RA products must be marked with the RA number and the location of concern on the product should be clearly identified. Not marking the RA number and not identifying the area of concern on a RA product will only lengthen the time of the evaluation process. Clearly mark the RA number on the outside of the packaging in which the RA product is to be returned.

Do not ship RA cylinders with accessories unless requested to do so by the RA representative. Only ship a RA cylinder with a valve if the valve is part of the concern of the product integrity. A cylinder with damaged threads that was valved should be returned with the valve. Never ship a pressurized (charged) cylinder! Vent all pressure from a cylinder and leave the valve open.

Processing a RA Product

Please allow 4 weeks for the complete processing, evaluation and shipping, of a RA product. RA products that are deemed to be acceptable after evaluation will be returned to the customer with documentation explaining the findings of the evaluation. At no time will a product of questionable integrity be returned to the customer. Again, Catalina Cylinders or Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division will pay for shipment of cylinders returned to the customer. All RA SCUBA cylinders returned to the customer shall have passed eddy current thread inspection and will have a dated certification sticker noting this affixed to the cylinder.

If you have any additional questions or inquiries, please do not hesitate to contact us at Catalina Cylinders (714) 890-0999 or Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division (757) 896-9100.

Thank you for choosing products manufactured by Catalina Cylinders and Catalina Cylinders Cliff Impact Division.

Transporting Charged Cylinders in Passenger Vehicles

Catalina Cylinders is aware that many charged cylinders are transported in passenger vehicles and that in a few instances the pressure relief device (PRD) has activated suddenly releasing the charge of the cylinder in the passenger vehicle. Sudden release of the charge of a cylinder into a passenger vehicle can pose many hazards. Depending on the charge of a cylinder, the released contents, suddenly or through a leak, can be flammable, cause an oxygen enrich environment (a fire catalyst), be toxic or poisonous, be corrosive, and or cause asphyxiation. The loss of the charge of a cylinder will result in the loss of the use of the charge of the cylinder and can cause, property damage, accidents, loss of consciousness, personal injury and even death.

The transportation of any charged cylinder must be done in complete compliance with all federal, state and local regulations. Catalina Cylinders believes that all charged cylinders should be transported by professionals trained in the legal transport of charged cylinders.

Catalina Cylinders recommends any safe practice established and followed in the transport of charged cylinders in passenger vehicles should include, but not be limited to, the following:

  1. We strongly recommend the transportation of charged cylinders be done by cylinder transport professionals trained to do this task.
  2. Persons transporting charged cylinders in passenger vehicles must be knowledgeable of, and comply with, all federal, state and local regulations related to the safe transport of charged cylinders. Consult with your charged cylinder supplier regarding these regulations and their recommended safe practices.
  3. Follow all charged cylinder supplier instructions.
  4. Only transport the minimum number of charged cylinders necessary.
  5. Do not transport charged cylinders, not in use, in the passenger area of a passenger vehicle.
  6. The area of the vehicle used for transporting the charged cylinders should have adequate ventilation.
  7. Verify the charged cylinders are in good working order, within retest date, and not leaking. Consult with your charged cylinder supplier with any questions.
  8. Verify proper labels are affixed to the cylinders. Consult with your charged cylinder supplier with any questions.
  9. Secure the charged cylinders in the vehicle in a manner not to cause damage to the cylinders or their accessories during transport.
  10. Be sure to transport all necessary cylinder accessories and tools to aid in the function and service of the charged cylinder. Keep these accessories and tools clean and free of potential contamination.
  11. Do not smoke in vehicles transporting charged cylinders carrying an oxidizing charge, such as medical oxygen cylinders, oxygen enriched air SCUBA tanks, or nitrous oxide cylinders.
  12. Extreme heat can lead to activation of the PRD on the valve of charged cylinders. Great care must be taken never to expose charged cylinders to heat in excess of 125°F (52°C).
  13. When the destination is reached, immediately remove the charged cylinders from the passenger vehicle.
  14. Do not leave charged cylinders in vehicles for any amount of time

This list is in no way meant to be the only items to be included in a safe practice for transporting charged cylinders in vehicles. Use all possible sources of information in establishing safe practices for transporting charged cylinders in passenger vehicles. The safe practice for transporting empty cylinders, cylinders without a charge, should include the same items listed above. Establishing and following legal and safe transporting practices while transporting charged cylinders in passenger vehicles will maximize the potential safety of all trips.

Thread and Neck Inspection for Aluminum Cylinders

All DOT/TC aluminum cylinders must be subjected to visual inspection at the time of their 5 year retest. Thread and neck inspection can only be performed with the valve removed from the cylinder and all foreign material (i.e. dirt, corrosion, etc.) removed from the o-ring gland and threads. Thread and neck inspection is performed visually with the aid of a light source and a 2X dental mirror and can be supported by the use of an eddy current thread inspecting device.

Eddy current inspection of 6061 aluminum alloy cylinders is not mandated by the Department of Transportation (DOT). Catalina Cylinders has only manufactured its cylinders from 6061 aluminum alloy. Only 6351 aluminum alloy cylinders are required to be inspected at the time of requalifcation, every 5 years, by the DOT.

Catalina Cylinders recommends that the items defined below be included in the thread and neck inspection of Catalina Cylinders’ cylinders subjected to annual visual inspection. The rejection criteria for each item is listed under that item.

Minimum Number of Threads

The minimum number of complete threads required in Catalina Cylinders’ cylinders are:

Service Pressure Minimum # of Threads
1800 – 2216 psi 6.0
3000 psi 8.0
3300 psi 9.0

The minimum number of complete threads is counted from the top thread down. The minimum number of complete threads cannot be interrupted by any discontinuities (i.e. valleys, folds, corrosion, cracks, or damage).

Rejection criteria:

Cylinders with less than the minimum number of complete threads required for the above noted service pressures are unacceptable.

Replacement Policy:

Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy covers cylinders manufactured with less than the minimum number of complete threads required.

Valley

A valley is a lack of metal condition at the bottom of the threads. A valley is created during the crown forming operation. A valley has an inverted “U” appearance in the bottom of the threads. The contour of a valley is generously rounded.

Rejection Criteria:

A valley is unacceptable if:

  • it interrupts the required minimum number of complete threads and
  • it creates a thread imbalance of 6 threads or more

A valley can be detected by, but is not rejected singularly by the use of an eddy current thread inspection device. A valley will not appear as a spike on a Visual Plus Unit.
Replacement Policy:

An unacceptable valley is a manufacturing related defect covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Thread Imbalance

A thread imbalance is the count of partial threads in a cylinder. A thread imbalance is the difference between the number of complete threads and the number of total threads (complete threads and partial threads) in a cylinder.

Rejection Criteria:

A thread imbalance is unacceptable if:

  • It interrupts the required minimum number of threads in a cylinder, or
  • It measures 6 threads or more

A thread imbalance can be detected by, but is not rejected singularly by the use of an eddy current thread inspection device.
Replacement Policy:

An unacceptable thread imbalance is a manufacturing related defect covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Folds

A fold is a lack of metal condition at the bottom of the threads or in the shoulder of a cylinder. A fold is created during the crown forming operation and is actually the metal folding over on itself during the forming operation. A fold is a static condition – not propagating or growing in magnitude. A fold has an inverted “V” appearance in the bottom of the threads. Typically a fold will have a linear indication running down the deepest part of the fold. The contour of a fold is sharp at its deepest point. A fold is similar in appearance to and often mistaken for a crack, a dynamic condition, which can occur in 6351 alloy cylinders.

Rejection Criteria:

A fold is unacceptable if:

  • it interrupts the required minimum number of complete threads, or
  • it interrupts two complete threads, or
  • it causes loss of contents of the cylinder

An eddy current thread inspection device can detect folds in the threads of a cylinder.
Replacement Policy:

An unacceptable fold is a manufacturing related defect covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Corrosion

Corrosion can occur in the threads of a cylinder if moisture, possibly by charging the cylinder with wet air, enters the cylinder. Corrosion will typically start in the 9th or 10th threads, at the location where the bottom of the threaded portion of the valve ends in the threads of a cylinder. A scuba valve that is not fully chrome plated may accelerate the corrosion process in the thread section of a cylinder. Corrosion can occur on the top surface of the cylinder and in the o-ring gland of the cylinder.

Rejection Criteria:

Corrosion is unacceptable if:

  • it interrupts the required minimum number of complete threads, or
  • it interrupts two complete threads, or
  • it causes loss of contents of the cylinder

An eddy current thread inspection device can detect corrosion in the threads of a cylinder.

Replacement Policy:

Corrosion is not a manufacturing related condition and is not covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Thread Cracks

A crack is a linear discontinuity that typically runs linearly top to bottom in the threads. A crack typically starts at the bottom of the threads and propagates upward. A crack can, but rarely does, start at the top of the threads. A crack is a dynamic condition – propagating or growing in magnitude over time, typically when the cylinder is under pressure. A crack in a 6351 alloy cylinder is similar in appearance to a fold, a static condition.

Rejection Criteria:

A crack is unacceptable.

Cracks can be identified and rejected by an eddy current thread inspection device. It is recommended that cylinders, in which a crack has been identified by an eddy current thread inspection device and cannot be identified visually, be returned to Catalina Cylinders against a Return Authorization (RA) for evaluation prior to condemning.

Replacement Policy:

A crack that is determined to be a manufacturing related defect is covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Eddy Current Device “Spike” Indications

Eddy current inspection of 6061 aluminum alloy cylinders is not mandated by the Department of Transportation (DOT). Catalina Cylinders has only manufactured its cylinders from 6061 aluminum alloy. Only 6351 aluminum alloy cylinders are required to be inspected at the time of requalification, every 5 years, by the DOT.
Eddy Current Device “Spike” indications measuring two threads long. These indications are measured after the unit has been calibrated, is operated in the 1X mode, and the trace line has been reset and centered below the threshold line.

Rejection Criteria:

Any linear indication that interrupts two complete threads and is identified by the Eddy Current Device as a spike indication is reason for reject (not condemned). Cylinder with Eddy Current Device reject conditions should have the reject condition visually verified before condemning the cylinder.

Replacement Policy:

Corrosion pits, an acceptable valley, and 1 thread fold are not covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

A cylinder that exhibits unacceptable manufacturing conditions (i.e. folds, cracks, or lack of complete threads) that extend two threads as identified by the Eddy Current Device are covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Tool Stop Marks

Tool Stop Marks appears as linear indications in the bottom 1 – 3 threads of a cylinder. Typically there are six equally spaced tool stop marks visible at the bottom of the threads in a cylinder when the threads are complete. The tool that cuts the threads into a cylinder creates tool stop marks. A tool stop mark is a slight build-up of metal at the location where the thread cutting tool stops, hence the name tool stop mark. Tool stop marks are not a rejectable condition.

Eddy current thread inspection devices typically do not detect tool stop marks.

Rejection Criteria:

None.

Replacement Policy:

Tool stop marks are not an unacceptable manufacturing condition covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Damage

Damage to the top surface, the o-ring gland, or the threads of a cylinder can be created during the manufacture of a cylinder and after the cylinder has been in service.

Rejection Criteria:

Damage to the top surface, the o-ring gland, or the threads of a cylinder is unacceptable if:

  • it causes loss of contents of the cylinder, or
  • it interrupts the required minimum number of complete threads in a cylinder

An eddy current thread inspection device may or may not detect damage to the threads of a cylinder.

Replacement Policy:

Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy covers unacceptable damage created during the manufacturing of the cylinder.

If at any time the integrity of a cylinder stamped with “CATALINA” and/or “M4002” on the crown is in question, we request you contact Catalina Cylinders immediately and ask to speak with a Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization (RA) representative. Our RA office hours are Monday through Friday 8:00am – 5:00pm. Before calling, please have available the cylinder crown marking (stamping) and an explanation of your concerns about the cylinder. Having this information available at the time of the call will help expedite the resolution to your concerns. The information you provide the RA representative will determine if a RA report should be generated and the cylinder returned to Catalina Cylinders.

Scuba (11)

Corrosion Maintenance

Catalina Cylinders recommends the following care and maintenance of SCUBA cylinder to minimize corrosion.

Daily Corrosion Maintenance

Never fill a cylinder with wet or contaminated air.

SCUBA cylinders must be thoroughly rinsed off with fresh water after each dive – especially when diving in saltwater. It takes time to dissolve salts and chemicals so just wetting the cylinder shall not be enough to remove dried salt and mineral deposits. While rinsing off the cylinder, wipe around every feature, accessory, and area where paint has been removed. When rinsing is completed, dry the cylinder. In areas where accessories are attached to the cylinder it is recommended to dry the cylinder with a towel.

Minimize the type of handling, storage and racking of a cylinder that will produce continuous isolated wear to the paint on the cylinder. If a cylinder is fitted in a pack, make sure the cylinder does not move in a way to cause scarring to the paint. If the cylinder is stored in a storage rack, make sure the cylinder is cushioned from hard impact or constant rubbing.

Periodic Corrosion Maintenance

For SCUBA cylinders filled daily, all accessories must be removed from the cylinder and the cylinder be thoroughly washed and dried once a month. The accessories should be washed and dried too. It is recommended that the valve of the cylinder is removed at least every six months and the cylinder is inspected internally to ensure that the cylinder is dry inside. If the cylinder is wet inside, clean, and thoroughly rinse and dry the inside of the cylinder before returning the cylinder to usage. Never fill a cylinder with wet or contaminated air. This is in addition to the standard daily cleaning.

It is recommended that accessories made of dissimilar metals be insulated from being in direct contact with the cylinder. For accessories made of dissimilar metals that are in contact with the scuba cylinder, remove the accessories and then wash and dry the cylinder and accessories twice a month.

Long Term Storage Corrosion Maintenance

For SCUBA cylinders that will not be used for a long period of time, a month or longer, remove all accessories from the cylinder. Thoroughly wash and dry the cylinder inside and outside. Wash and dry the accessories too. Inspect the valve for corrosion or missing chrome plating. If the valve is free of corrosion and the chrome platting is intact, re-install the valve with a little Dow III lubricant on the threads and with a new o-ring. Catalina Cylinders recommends using a 214 o-ring with a 90 shore. Store the washed, dried and valved cylinder in the upright position in a cool, dry and salt-free environment. If the cylinder cannot be stored in a salt-free environment it is recommended that the cylinder be stored without the accessories attached. Store the cylinder with a slight positive pressure, approximately 20 – 100psi. 

Calculation of an Acceptable Dig (Gouge) in a S80 SCUBA Cylinder

In CGA pamphlet C-6.1, Standards for Visual Inspection of High Pressure Aluminum Compressed Gas Cylinders, it states in section 4.2 that cuts or digs are acceptable to the following limits:

  1. Unknown wall thickness, maximum dig = .031″ deep
  2. Known wall thickness, maximum dig = 15% of minimum design wall thickness.

    a) A dig in the sidewall could be:
    .471″ (min side wall) x .15% = .071″ deep

    b) A dig in the center of the base (the thinnest part of the base) could be:
    .735 (min base) x .15% = .110″ deep

    c) A dig in the radius and footring at the bottom of the cylinder could be:
    .110″ deep + .04″ footring height) = * .150″ deep
    * This dig cannot extend up into the sidewall.

  3. The length of the dig must be less than 6.0″

Corrosion Maintenance of SCUBA Cylinders

Catalina Cylinders recommends the following care and maintenance of SCUBA cylinder to minimize corrosion.

Daily Corrosion Maintenance

Never fill a cylinder with wet or contaminated air.

SCUBA cylinders must be thoroughly rinsed off with fresh water after each dive – especially when diving in saltwater. It takes time to dissolve salts and chemicals so just wetting the cylinder shall not be enough to remove dried salt and mineral deposits. While rinsing off the cylinder, wipe around every feature, accessory, and area where paint has been removed. When rinsing is completed, dry the cylinder. In areas where accessories are attached to the cylinder it is recommended to dry the cylinder with a towel.

Minimize the type of handling, storage and racking of a cylinder that will produce continuous isolated wear to the paint on the cylinder. If a cylinder is fitted in a pack, make sure the cylinder does not move in a way to cause scarring to the paint. If the cylinder is stored in a storage rack, make sure the cylinder is cushioned from hard impact or constant rubbing.

Periodic Corrosion Maintenance

For SCUBA cylinders filled daily, all accessories must be removed from the cylinder and the cylinder be thoroughly washed and dried once a month. The accessories should be washed and dried too. It is recommended that the valve of the cylinder is removed at least every six months and the cylinder is inspected internally to ensure that the cylinder is dry inside. If the cylinder is wet inside, clean, and thoroughly rinse and dry the inside of the cylinder before returning the cylinder to usage. Never fill a cylinder with wet or contaminated air. This is in addition to the standard daily cleaning.

It is recommended that accessories made of dissimilar metals be insulated from being in direct contact with the cylinder. For accessories made of dissimilar metals that are in contact with the scuba cylinder, remove the accessories and then wash and dry the cylinder and accessories twice a month.

Long Term Storage Corrosion Maintenance

For SCUBA cylinders that will not be used for a long period of time, a month or longer, remove all accessories from the cylinder. Thoroughly wash and dry the cylinder inside and outside. Wash and dry the accessories too. Inspect the valve for corrosion or missing chrome plating. If the valve is free of corrosion and the chrome platting is intact, re-install the valve with a little Dow III lubricant on the threads and with a new o-ring. Catalina Cylinders recommends using a 214 o-ring with a 90 shore. Store the washed, dried and valved cylinder in the upright position in a cool, dry and salt-free environment. If the cylinder cannot be stored in a salt-free environment it is recommended that the cylinder be stored without the accessories attached. Store the cylinder with a slight positive pressure, approximately 20 – 100psi.

Crown Markings of a Standard SCUBA Cylinder

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and Canada’s Transport Canada (TC) require that cylinders made in compliance to their specifications be marked on the crown with certain information. Over the years the format used by Catalina Cylinders and Cliff Impact Division of Catalina Cylinders to display these markings has changed. Shown below is an example of the current crown markings stamped on the standard S80 (80 cu ft, 3000 psi) SCUBA cylinders manufactured at Catalina Cylinders, Garden Grove, CA. Under the example of the crown marking is a list of each of the specific crown markings followed by a brief explanation of that marking. The descriptions of the markings are the same regardless of the different stamping formats used over the years.
Example of the crown marking on an S80 SCUBA Cylinder:
DOT-3AL3000..ASXXXXXXX M4002 07C08 CATALINA S80 SP12 TC-3ALM207

DOT-3AL The U.S. regulatory authority, the Department of Transportation (DOT), and specification, 3AL, to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance (required mark).

3000 The service pressure, in pounds per square inch (psi), of the cylinder (required mark).

ASXXXXXXX The serial number of the cylinder. For Catalina Cylinders, the serial number prefix of “AS” is specific to the S80 (80 cu ft, 3000 psi) SCUBA cylinders followed by a six digit number.

M4002 The M-number or Manufacturers Number issued by the DOT to the manufacturer, Catalina Cylinders (required mark). This mark is recognized by TC

07C08 The original hydrostatic test date of the cylinder, month followed by year, performed at the time of manufacture of the cylinder. The “*” represents the symbol of the Independent Inspection Agency (IIA) performing the inspection of and certifying the acceptance of the cylinder at the time of manufacture (required mark).

CATALINA The name of the manufacturer of the cylinder.

S80 The cylinder identifier. It identifies the market, “S” for SCUBA, and capacity, “80” for a capacity of 80cuft charge, of the cylinder.

SP12 The cylinder outlet thread designation as specified in CGA TB-16.

TC-3ALM The Canadian regulatory authority, Transport Canada (TC), and specification, 3ALM, to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance (required mark).

207 The service pressure of the cylinder expressed in metric units, bars (required mark).

Explanation of Manufacturing Related Variations In The Lower Sidewall of Some Catalina Cylinder Corporation SCUBA Cylinders

Catalina Cylinder Corporation manufactured high-pressure aluminum cylinders until December of 1991. In the crown forming operation of the manufacturing process, flame heat was used to heat the end of the product prior to forming the crown of the cylinder. After the product was heated, the product was forced from the base end into a die to form the crown end. Sometimes the flame heat was insufficient to properly allow the product to flow and form the crown end of the cylinder without causing uniform distortion of the lower sidewall of the cylinder. This distortion would appear as a uniform bulging of the cylinder’s lower sidewall starting about two inches up from the base of the cylinder. The distortion would not be localized but would be uniform around the cylinder. In addition, the distortion would only be located in the lower sidewall of the cylinder and nowhere else.

If you have a Catalina Cylinder Corporation cylinder manufactured in the late 1980’s that has a uniform bulge all the way around the lower sidewall of the cylinder just above the base of the cylinder, the manufacturing process most likely caused it. Hydrostatically test the cylinder and if the cylinder passes hydrostatic test, then the cylinder is acceptable for further service.

If you have a cylinder that has a localized bulge (not bow) in the sidewall of the cylinder, then the cylinder should be condemned and taken out of service.

Minimum Number of Threads Required in SCUBA Cylinders

At Catalina Cylinders, the minimum number of threads required is based on information from Fed Standard H-28. Fed Standard H-28 is referenced directly in 49 CFR 178.46; DOT-3AL. The minimum number of threads required in a SCUBA cylinder with �-14 NGS threads varies depending on the service pressure. Listed below are the minimum number of threads required for aluminum SCUBA cylinders with �-14 NGS threads at different service pressures as calculated by Catalina Cylinders.


Service Pressure

Minimum # of Threads

3000 psi

8.0

3300 psi

9.0

3500 psi

9.0


Note: The minimum number of threads is rounded up to the next complete (whole) thread.

Oxygen Compatibility in SCUBA Cylinders

PLEASE NOTE: This document only applies to Catalina Cylinders, new and used, SCUBA cylinders and in no way is meant to apply to the SCUBA cylinders manufactured by different entities.

Prior to June 2006, Catalina Cylinders SCUBA cylinders, as-manufactured, were not specifically cleaned for oxygen service and therefore are under no circumstances to be charged with oxygen enriched air, air containing oxygen concentrations in excess of 23.5%, unless the SCUBA cylinders have been specifically cleaned for oxygen service by trained personnel and labeled as such.

As of June 2006 all 3000psi service pressure, or less, Catalina Cylinders SCUBA cylinders, as-manufactured, have been specifically cleaned for oxygen service and therefore can be charged with oxygen enriched air immediately after purchase.

To charge a Catalina Cylinders SCUBA cylinder with oxygen enriched air, the following items must be verified before charging:

  1. The cylinder is currently clean as if for oxygen service. It should be a new 3000psi or less Catalina Cylinders SCUBA cylinder or a used Catalina Cylinders SCUBA cylinder that has a cleaned for oxygen service and a label affixed stating as such.
  2. All accessories and components which will come in contact with the oxygen enriched air charge have been manufactured cleaned for oxygen service or have been cleaned and certified as clean for oxygen service by properly trained personnel.
  3. All lubricants used on Catalina Cylinders SCUBA cylinders, all accessories and components which come in contact with the oxygen enriched air charge are compatible with high pressure oxygen usage and aluminum.
  4. The o-rings and other non-metallic materials which come in contact with the oxygen enriched air charge are compatible with high pressure oxygen usage.
  5. All other items and materials that may come in contact with oxygen enriched air during the charging, use and/or storage of the Catalina Cylinders SCUBA cylinder and its components and accessories which have been cleaned for oxygen service, have been cleaned for oxygen service.

Warnings

  1. Failure to verify the above items have been addressed before charging a SCUBA cylinder with oxygen enriched air may lead to a catastrophic event that can cause property damage, serious injury or even death.
  2. The U.S DOT has interpreted its regulations stating that DOT-3AL (aluminum) SCUBA cannot be charged with oxygen enriched air to a service pressure greater than 3000psi. Thus, Catalina Cylinders 3300psi compact SCUBA cylinders cannot be charged with oxygen enriched air as mandated by the DOT. For more information on this matter please contact Catalina Cylinders.

Requalification (retesting) of DOT-SP 12079 Steel SCUBA Cylinders

The retest pressure is 5250psi for all SP 12079 steel SCUBA cylinders.

All Department of Transportation (DOT) Special Permit (SP) 12079 steel SCUBA cylinders must be requalified at a retest pressure equal to 3/2 (1.5) times the design service pressure of the cylinder. This may be confusing to some who are in possession of SP 12079 steel SCUBA cylinders marked with a service pressure of 3442psi, “DOT-SP12079-3442”. Following is an explanation of how cylinders marked with the same special permit number, “SP 12079”, and marked with two different service pressures, “3500” and “3442” are to be requalified at the same retest pressure, “5250psi”.

The United States (US) DOT requires that all specification cylinders be periodically requalified as identified in 49 CFR section 180. In 49 CFR 180.205 (c); Periodic Requalification of Cylinders it states,” Each cylinder bearing a DOT special permit number must be requalified and marked in conformance with this section and the terms of the applicable special permit (SP 12079).” To perform requalification in conformance with the terms of the special permit, it is interpreted that a copy of the special permit is on hand or can be accessed electronically. Copies of special permits can be attained by accessing the US DOT PHMSA webpage.

All steel SCUBA cylinders marked with DOT-SP 12079 have been designed with a service pressure of 3,500psi as noted on page 4 of the SP 12079 regardless of when they were manufactured. The original steel SCUBA cylinders marked against this specification were marked with “DOT-E12079-3500”. The next generation of these steel SCUBA cylinders were marked slightly differently, “DOT-SP12079-3500” due to a change by the DOT in identifying these cylinders now as special permit (SP) cylinders replacing the exemption (E) cylinder identification. Even though all E or SP 12079 steel SCUBA cylinders have been designed with a service pressure of 3500psi, cylinders manufactured since late 2007 have been marked with a lower service pressure of 3442psi, “DOT-SP12079-3442”. These cylinders are marked with the lower service pressure of 3442psi so that standard SCUBA valves can be used on these cylinders. Cylinders marked with a service pressure of 3442psi must not be used in service at a pressure greater than 3442psi.

As stated earlier, special permit cylinders must be requalified in accordance with the requirements of the DOT regulation and the special permit. In SP 12079 section 8; Special Provisions paragraph (f) it states, “Each cylinder must be requalified for use every 5 years in accordance with 180.205 as prescribed for DOT specification 3AA cylinders except the minimum retest pressure must be 3/2 (1.5) times the service pressure.”

In conclusion, since the design service pressure of all SP 12079 cylinders is 3500psi, regardless if they are marked at 3500psi or 3442psi, the requalification (retest) pressure must be 5250psi.

Serial Number Prefixes of SCUBA Cylinders

US / Canadian Cylinders
Note: The current serial number prefix system was implemented in 1993. Cylinders manufactured prior to September 1993 did not have serial number prefixes specific to the different cylinder types. The serial number prefixes of these cylinders began with “A” through “D”.

3000 psi SCUBA Cylinders

Part
Name

S/N
Prefix

Fill

S/P
(psi)

Capacity
(cu ft)

S6

BV

AIR

3000

6.0

S13

AZ

AIR

3000

13.0

S17

AY

AIR

3000

17.0

S19

CB

AIR

3000

19.0

S30

BS

AIR

3000

30.0

S40

BI

AIR

3000

40.0

S53

AX

AIR

3000

53.0

S63

BJ

AIR

3000

63.1

S67

AR

AIR

3000

67.0

S80

AS

AIR

3000

77.4



3300 psi SCUBA Cylinders

Part
Name

S/N
Prefix

Fill

S/P
(psi)

Capacity
(cu ft)

C60

CE

AIR

3300

60.0

C80

T

AIR

3300

77.4

C100

AA

AIR

3300

100.0

Thread and Neck Inspection Criteria for SCUBA Cylinders

All SCUBA cylinders should be subjected to an annual visual inspection under normal use. A cylinder subjected to an average of one fill a day or more is considered a cylinder subjected to high use. A cylinder subjected to high use should be visually inspected, both externally and internally, a minimum of every six months. Annual visual inspection includes the inspection of the threads and neck of a cylinder. Thread and neck inspection can only be performed with the valve removed from the cylinder and all foreign material (i.e. dirt, corrosion, etc.) removed from the o-ring gland and threads. Thread and neck inspection is performed visually with the aid of a light source and a 2X dental mirror and can be supported by the use of an eddy current thread inspecting device.

Eddy current inspection of 6061 aluminum alloy cylinders is not mandated by the Department of Transportation (DOT). Catalina Cylinders has only manufactured its cylinders from 6061 aluminum alloy. Only 6351 aluminum alloy cylinders are required to be inspected at the time of requalifcation, every 5 years, by the DOT.

Catalina Cylinders recommends that the items defined below be included in the thread and neck inspection of Catalina Cylinders’ SCUBA cylinders subjected to annual visual inspection. The rejection criteria for each item is listed under that item.

Minimum Number of ThreadsThe minimum number of complete threads required in Catalina Cylinders SCUBA cylinders are:


Service Pressure

Minimum # Threads

3000 psi

8.0

3300 psi

9.0

The minimum number of complete threads is counted from the top thread down. The minimum number of complete threads cannot be interrupted by any discontinuities (i.e. valleys, folds, corrosion, cracks, or damage).

Rejection criteria:

Cylinders with less than the minimum number of complete threads required for the above noted service pressures are unacceptable.

Replacement Policy:

Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy covers cylinders manufactured with less than the minimum number of complete threads required.

Valley

A valley is a lack of metal condition at the bottom of the threads. A valley is created during the crown forming operation. A valley has an inverted “U” appearance in the bottom of the threads. The contour of a valley is generously rounded.

Rejection Criteria:

A valley is unacceptable if:

  • it interrupts the required minimum number of complete threads and
  • it creates a thread imbalance of 6 threads or more.

A valley can be detected by, but is not rejected singularly by the use of an eddy current thread inspection device. A valley will not appear as a spike on a Visual Plus Unit.

Replacement Policy:

An unacceptable valley is a manufacturing related defect covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Thread Imbalance

A thread imbalance is the count of partial threads in a cylinder. A thread imbalance is the difference between the number of complete threads and the number of total threads (complete threads and partial threads) in a cylinder.

Rejection Criteria:

A thread imbalance is unacceptable if:

  • It interrupts the required minimum number of threads in a cylinder, or
  • It measures 6 threads or more.

A thread imbalance can be detected by, but is not rejected singularly by the use of an eddy current thread inspection device.

Replacement Policy:

An unacceptable thread imbalance is a manufacturing related defect covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Folds

A fold is a lack of metal condition at the bottom of the threads or in the shoulder of a cylinder. A fold is created during the crown forming operation and is actually the metal folding over on itself during the forming operation. A fold is a static condition – not propagating or growing in magnitude. A fold has an inverted “V” appearance in the bottom of the threads. Typically a fold will have a linear indication running down the deepest part of the fold. The contour of a fold is sharp at its deepest point. A fold is similar in appearance to and often mistaken for a crack, a dynamic condition, which can occur in 6351 alloy cylinders.

Rejection Criteria:

A fold is unacceptable if:

  • it interrupts the required minimum number of complete threads, or
  • it interrupts two complete threads, or
  • it causes loss of contents of the cylinder.

An eddy current thread inspection device can detect folds in the threads of a cylinder.

Replacement Policy:

An unacceptable fold is a manufacturing related defect covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Corrosion

Corrosion can occur in the threads of a cylinder if moisture, possibly by charging the cylinder with wet air, enters the cylinder. Corrosion will typically start in the 9th or 10th threads, at the location where the bottom of the threaded portion of the valve ends in the threads of a cylinder. A scuba valve that is not fully chrome plated may accelerate the corrosion process in the thread section of a cylinder. Corrosion can occur on the top surface of the cylinder and in the o-ring gland of the cylinder.

Rejection Criteria:

Corrosion is unacceptable if:

  • it interrupts the required minimum number of complete threads, or
  • it interrupts two complete threads, or
  • it causes loss of contents of the cylinder.

An eddy current thread inspection device can detect corrosion in the threads of a cylinder.

Replacement Policy:

Corrosion is not a manufacturing related condition and is not covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Thread Cracks

A crack is a linear discontinuity that typically runs linearly top to bottom in the threads. A crack typically starts at the bottom of the threads and propagates upward. A crack can, but rarely does, start at the top of the threads. A crack is a dynamic condition – propagating or growing in magnitude over time, typically when the cylinder is under pressure. A crack in a 6351 alloy cylinder is similar in appearance to a fold, a static condition.

Rejection Criteria:

A crack is unacceptable.

Cracks can be identified and rejected by an eddy current thread inspection device. It is recommended that cylinders, in which a crack has been identified by an eddy current thread inspection device and cannot be identified visually, be returned to Catalina Cylinders against a Return Authorization (RA) for evaluation prior to condemning.

Replacement Policy:

A crack that is determined to be a manufacturing related defect is covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Eddy Current Device “Spike” Indications

Eddy current inspection of 6061 aluminum alloy cylinders is not mandated by the Department of Transportation (DOT). Catalina Cylinders has only manufactured its cylinders from 6061 aluminum alloy. Only 6351 aluminum alloy cylinders are required to be inspected at the time of requalification, every 5 years, by the DOT.

Eddy Current Device “Spike” indications measuring two threads long. These indications are measured after the unit has been calibrated, is operated in the 1X mode, and the trace line has been reset and centered below the threshold line.

Rejection Criteria:

Any linear indication that interrupts two complete threads and is identified by the Eddy Current Device as a spike indication is reason for reject (not condemned). Cylinder with Eddy Current Device reject conditions should have the reject condition visually verified before condemning the cylinder.

Replacement Policy:

Corrosion pits, an acceptable valley, and 1 thread fold are not covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

A cylinder that exhibits unacceptable manufacturing conditions (i.e. folds, cracks, or lack of complete threads) that extend two threads as identified by the Eddy Current Device are covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Tool Stop Marks

Tool Stop Marks appears as linear indications in the bottom 1 – 3 threads of a cylinder. Typically there are six equally spaced tool stop marks visible at the bottom of the threads in a cylinder when the threads are complete. The tool that cuts the threads into a cylinder creates tool stop marks. A tool stop mark is a slight build-up of metal at the location where the thread cutting tool stops, hence the name tool stop mark. Tool stop marks are not a rejectable condition.

Eddy current thread inspection devices typically do not detect tool stop marks.

Rejection Criteria:

None.

Replacement Policy:

Tool stop marks are not an unacceptable manufacturing condition covered by Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy.

Damage

Damage to the top surface, the o-ring gland, or the threads of a cylinder can be created during the manufacture of a cylinder and after the cylinder has been in service.


Rejection Criteria:

Damage to the top surface, the o-ring gland, or the threads of a cylinder is unacceptable if:

  • it causes loss of contents of the cylinder, or
  • it interrupts the required minimum number of complete threads in a cylinder.

An eddy current thread inspection device may or may not detect damage to the threads of a cylinder.

Replacement Policy:

Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization Policy covers unacceptable damage created during the manufacturing of the cylinder.

If at any time the integrity of a cylinder stamped with “CATALINA” and/or “M4002” on the crown is in question, we request you contact Catalina Cylinders immediately at (714) 890-0999 and ask to speak with a Catalina Cylinders Return Authorization (RA) representative. Our RA office hours are Monday through Friday 8:00am – 5:00pm PST. Before calling, please have available the cylinder crown marking (stamping) and an explanation of your concerns about the cylinder. Having this information available at the time of the call will help expedite the resolution to your concerns. The information you provide the RA representative will determine if a RA report should be generated and the cylinder returned to Catalina Cylinders.

Valving of SCUBA (Air) Cylinders

Catalina Cylinders recommends that anyone valving SCUBA (air) cylinders should be aware of the hazards associated with high pressure compressed air and be trained in safe practices of valving SCUBA cylinders. Catalina Cylinders has compiled the list of items below that should be included in all safe practices for the valving SCUBA (air) cylinders. For valving SCUBA cylinders to be used in oxygen enriched air service reference Catalina Cylinders technical support document, Oxygen Compatibility of SCUBA Cylinders and consult recognized authorities in oxygen enriched air.

Valve Removal

  1. Verify the cylinder is free of charge and not under pressure before attempting to remove the valve.
  2. Only discharge the remaining charge of a cylinder in a well ventilated area.
  3. Position the cylinder with outlet port of the valve facing away from all personnel and/or equipment.
  4. Slightly (“crack”) open the handwheel of the valve discharging or releasing the residual charge. Leave the handwheel of the valve open throughout the valve removal process.
  5. Fitting a wrench snugly to the valve body, use force turning the wrench counter clockwise to loosen the valve.
  6. If the valve cannot be loosened, stop, remove the wrench and apply a small amount of penetrating release agent at the junction of the valve and cylinder and allow time, 5 – 15 minutes, for the release agent to penetrate the junction.
  7. Again attempt to loosen the valve. It may take some time to work the valve free from the cylinder. If a valve is really stuck and a release agent is used, you may have to stop periodically in the removal process and reapply the release agent and allow time for the newly applied release agent to work.
  8. When a release agent is used, always clean completely the cylinder and valve of the entire release agent.

Valve Insertion

  1. Verify that the cylinder was manufactured for SCUBA (air) service.
  2. Verify the valve is a SCUBA valve (typically a k-type valve).
  3. Verify that the safety device is the correct safety device, is rated at the test pressure of the cylinder, and has not been actuated or altered (tampered with).
    • Never tamper with the safety device. If the safety device appears to be tampered with, do not use the valve.
    • Never replace the safety device of a valve on a cylinder that is charged.
    • If a safety device has been actuated and the cylinder has vented, then the cylinder may have been overfilled or exposed to high heat.
  4. Inspect the inlet threads and outlet port of the valve and the threads and o-ring gland of the cylinder for damage. If either the valve or cylinder has damage to the threads or the o-ring gland area, do not insert the valve into the cylinder.
  5. Inspect the cylinder threads and the cylinder internally verifying that the cylinder is free of all contaminants (i.e. release agents that may have been used to remove the valve, moisture, soils, corrosion, etc.). Do not proceed if you feel the cylinder may be contaminated. Reference Catalina Cylinders Technical Support Document, Cylinder Cleaning, for common methods of cleaning a cylinder.
  6. Catalina Cylinders recommends the insertion of a new buna-N o-ring, with a hardness of 90 shore, every time the valve of a cylinder is removed and re-installed. Verify that the new o-ring is free of all damage. Following are the buna-N o-ring sizes for the different inlet thread sizes:
    Thread Designation   Buna-N O-ring Size
    .750 – 16 UNF   210
    � – 14 NGS (NPSM)   214
  7. Catalina Cylinders has found it easiest to place the o-ring on the valve and then insert the valve into the cylinder tightening the valve hand tight. Placing the o-ring in the o-ring gland of the cylinder and then inserting the valve is known to have damaged the o-ring in some instances.
  8. Apply a small amount of lubricant, Dow Corning Compound 111, to the end of the valve and the leading 2 to 3 threads of the valve. A small amount of lubricant has been found helpful to reduce galvanic corrosion in the threads of the cylinder.
  9. Hand tightening of the valve should seat the valve completely on the cylinder (i.e. no gap between the valve and the cylinder). If there is still a gap between the valve and the bottom of the cylinder lightly tap the valve handle with a rawhide or rubber mallet to seat the valve completely. The valve should only rotate 45o (1/8 of a turn) from the point of hand tightening to fully seated. If you decide to seat the valve using a torque wrench, following are recommended torque values by Catalina Cylinders and the CGA:
     
    Thread Designation
      Catalina Cylinders
    Recommended Torque
      Catalina Cylinders
    Maximum Torque
    .750 – 16 UNF   40 lbf-ft   50 lbf-ft
    � – 14 NGS (NPSM)   40 lbf-ft   50 lbf-ft
  10. Close the valve with no more than 1 lbf-ft torque.

Medical (8)

Position on PRD’s

After a little bit of work and a lot of dialogue with different people in the compressed gas industry, the following position has been taken by Catalina Cylinders.

HM-220 has come full circle on the pressure relief device (PRD) requirements for oxygen cylinders. As currently written in 49 CFR 173.301(f)(3), ” For a specification 3, 3A, 3AA, 3AL, 3AX, 3AXX, 3B, 3BN, or 3T cylinders filled with gases in other than Division 2.2, beginning with the first requalification due after December 31, 2003, the burst pressure of a CG-1, CG-4, or CG-5 pressure relief device must be at test pressure with a tolerance of plus zero to minus 10%.”, compressed oxygen cylinders are excluded from this requirement since they are identified in the table in section 172.101(columns 3) as a division 2.2 gas. Current specification references were attained on-line at www.myregs.com/dotrspa/.

Catalina interprets this as:

 

    1. New medical oxygen cylinders with the service pressures of 2015 psi and 2216 psi can be (and will be) equipped with the same CGA 870 or CGA 540 valves with the same PRD rated at 3360 psi +/- 10%. There is no requirement for valves with different rated PRDs to be used on 2015 psi and 2216 psi cylinders. This is the same as it was before HM-220 began.
    1. Old 2216 psi medical oxygen cylinders (i.e the M6, M4, M2, M60, M90 and M122) in service with the (old) 3360 psi +/-10% rated PRDs will not have to have their PRDs changed out at the next requalification.
  1. In preparation for what appeared to be an inevitable rule change, the +0 -10% rating of the pressure relief devices, Catalina Cylinders did procure and insert some valves in M2, M4, and M6 cylinders with pressure relief device rated at 3693 psi +0 -10%.These PRD’s are in compliance with the specification written either way, with either the +/-10% or +0 -10% tolerance on the PRDs, and are acceptable as is and will not have to be changed out at any time in the service life of the cylinders.

If you have any questions, please do not hesitate in contacting Catalina Cylinders. 

Transporting Charged Cylinders in Passenger Vehicles

Catalina Cylinders is aware that many charged cylinders are transported in passenger vehicles and that in a few instances the pressure relief device (PRD) has activated suddenly releasing the charge of the cylinder in the passenger vehicle. Sudden release of the charge of a cylinder into a passenger vehicle can pose many hazards. Depending on the charge of a cylinder, the released contents, suddenly or through a leak, can be flammable, cause an oxygen enrich environment (a fire catalyst), be toxic or poisonous, be corrosive, and or cause asphyxiation. The loss of the charge of a cylinder will result in the loss of the use of the charge of the cylinder and can cause, property damage, accidents, loss of consciousness, personal injury and even death.

The transportation of any charged cylinder must be done in complete compliance with all federal, state and local regulations. Catalina Cylinders believes that all charged cylinders should be transported by professionals trained in the legal transport of charged cylinders.

Catalina Cylinders recommends any safe practice established and followed in the transport of charged cylinders in passenger vehicles should include, but not be limited to, the following:

  1. We strongly recommend the transportation of charged cylinders be done by cylinder transport professionals trained to do this task.
  2. Persons transporting charged cylinders in passenger vehicles must be knowledgeable of, and comply with, all federal, state and local regulations related to the safe transport of charged cylinders. Consult with your charged cylinder supplier regarding these regulations and their recommended safe practices.
  3. Follow all charged cylinder supplier instructions.
  4. Only transport the minimum number of charged cylinders necessary.
  5. Do not transport charged cylinders, not in use, in the passenger area of a passenger vehicle.
  6. The area of the vehicle used for transporting the charged cylinders should have adequate ventilation.
  7. Verify the charged cylinders are in good working order, within retest date, and not leaking. Consult with your charged cylinder supplier with any questions.
  8. Verify proper labels are affixed to the cylinders. Consult with your charged cylinder supplier with any questions.
  9. Secure the charged cylinders in the vehicle in a manner not to cause damage to the cylinders or their accessories during transport.
  10. Be sure to transport all necessary cylinder accessories and tools to aid in the function and service of the charged cylinder. Keep these accessories and tools clean and free of potential contamination.
  11. Do not smoke in vehicles transporting charged cylinders carrying an oxidizing charge, such as medical oxygen cylinders, oxygen enriched air SCUBA tanks, or nitrous oxide cylinders.
  12. Extreme heat can lead to activation of the PRD on the valve of charged cylinders. Great care must be taken never to expose charged cylinders to heat in excess of 1250F (520C).
  13. When the destination is reached, immediately remove the charged cylinders from the passenger vehicle.
  14. Do not leave charged cylinders in vehicles for any amount of time.

This list is in no way meant to be the only items to be included in a safe practice for transporting charged cylinders in vehicles. Use all possible sources of information in establishing safe practices for transporting charged cylinders in passenger vehicles. The safe practice for transporting empty cylinders, cylinders without a charge, should include the same items listed above. Establishing and following legal and safe transporting practices while transporting charged cylinders in passenger vehicles will maximize the potential safety of all trips.

Recommended Steps To Be Included in a Procedure for Removal and Insertion of Valves in Medical Oxygen Cylinders

Oxygen is one of the three components necessary for combustion. Great care must always be taken when performing any operation in an oxygen-enriched environment. Catalina Cylinders recommends the following steps be included in any procedure for the valve removal from, and the insertion in, oxygen cylinders.

Valve Removal

  1. Always perform the valve removal operation in a well-ventilated and clean (oil-free) area.
  2. Make sure there are no possible sources of ignition (i.e. lit cigarettes, open flames, welding equipment, etc.) in the well ventilated area in which the valve removal form the oxygen cylinders will be performed.
  3. Always use clean (oil-free) tools.
  4. Verify the cylinder is an oxygen cylinder by the Oxygen USP Warning label on the sidewall of the cylinder and the O2 or O with a 2 inside it stamping in the crown marking on the top of the cylinder. Do not remove the valve from a cylinder of which the contents of the cylinder is unknown.
  5. Open the valve slightly and verify the cylinder is free of oxygen charge.
  6. Do not remove the valve from cylinders containing any charge (pressure).
  7. Secure the cylinder, use a wrench that fits the valve body and manually supply enough force to break the valve free from the cylinder.
  8. Stop and listen (for hissing) for loss of contents. If heard discontinue any efforts to remove the valve from the cylinder.
  9. If there is no evidence of loss of contents after breaking the valve free, continue to remove the valve.
  10. If the valve binds (sticks) in the threads during removal, do not use an oil-based release agent to assist in the removal of the valve.
  11. After removal of a valve that was stuck in a cylinder, evaluate the threads of the valve and cylinder before ire-inserting the valve into the cylinder.
  12. Discard the Teflon o-ring. It cannot be reused.

Valve Insertion

  1. Always perform valve insertion operation in clean (oil-free) area.
  2. Always use clean (oil-free) tools.
  3. Verify the cylinder is an oxygen cylinder by the Oxygen USP Warning label on the sidewall of the cylinder and the O2 or O with a 2 inside it stamping in the crown marking on the top of the cylinder.
  4. Verify the valve is the correct valve to be used in oxygen service. For DOT-3AL cylinders the valves are CGA 870 or CGA 540 valves with straight threads.
  5. Verify the valve and cylinder threads are free of all oil-based products (i.e. lubricants). Never use products containing oil in the valve insertion process in oxygen cylinders.
  6. Inspect the inlet and outlet connection of the valve and the threads and o-ring gland of the cylinder for damage to the threads and o-ring area. If either the valve or cylinder has damage to the threads or the o-ring area, do not insert the valve into the cylinder.
  7. Always use a new Teflon o-ring every time the valve is re-installed. Verify that the new Teflon o-ring is free of lubricants and damage.
  8. Cylinder Valve Teflon
    Thread Designation Designation O-ring Size
    .750 – 16 UNF CGA 870 210
    1.125 – 12 UNF CGA 540 216
  9. Never use Teflon tape or any other sealing compound to seal a leaking valve/cylinder assembly.

  10. Teflon o-rings are easily damaged. Be careful when putting the o-ring onto the valve. Contact the valve manufacturer for their recommended technique to install a Teflon o-ring on a valve.

  11. Tighten the valve hand tight.

  12. If you feel the valve binding in the cylinder while inserting the valve, stop immediately, remove the valve, check the threads of the valve and cylinder for apparent damage, inspect the cylinder internally for contamination.

    Remove from service a valve and/or cylinder with damaged threads.

    If contaminates are visible inside a cylinder, remove all contaminates and re-inspect the inside of the cylinder verifying the cylinder is free of contaminates before inserting a valve into the cylinder.

    Caution: If using compressed air to remove (blowout) contaminates form a cylinder, make sure the air is oil free. The compressed air system should have in-line oil filters. Many standard compressed air systems do not have in-line oil filters.


  13. Final tightening of the valve should be done with a clean calibrated torque wrench to the recommended torque values noted below:
    Thread Catalina Cylinders
    Designation Recommended Torque
    .750 – 16 UNF 80 lbf – ft   –   85 lbf – ft
    1.125 – 12 UNF 95 lbf – ft   –   100 lbf – ft

    When torquing is complete, there should be no gap between the bottom of the flange of the valve and the top of the cylinder. For oversized o-rings, a slightly higher amount of torque may be required to seat vavles completely.


  14. Close the valve with no more than 1 lbf – ft torque.

  15. Do not tamper with the safety device of the valve. The safety device of the valve should be rated at the test pressure of the cylinder.

  16. Whenever replacing the safety device of a valve, Catalina Cylinders recommends that you always replace the safety device with a complete new safety device assembly.

Serial Number Prefixes of Medical Cylinders

Serial number prefixes are the first two characters of the cylinder’s serial number.

  Catalina West
Garden Grove, CA
Catalina East
Hampton, VA

DOT Manufacturer’s Number:

M4002

CLIFFDIV

Part
No.

Catalina

West

Catalina

East

Oxygen Capacity

Diameter

Length

Service
Pressure

Garden

Grove,CA

(See
Note 1)

Hampton,VA

(See
Note 2)

(cu
ft)

(liters)

(in)

(mm)

(in)

(mm)

(psi)

(bar)

M150 AP 150 4248 8.00 203.2 46.2 1173.5 2015 139
M122 AB EK 122 3455 8.00 203.2 35.7 906.8 2216 153
M90 BR ER 90 2549 7.25 184.2 32.4 823.0 2216 153
M60 BK EI 60 1699 7.25 184.2 23.1 586.7 2216 153
ME MM AS 24 680 4.38 111.3 24.9 632.5 2015 139
M22 BH GL 22 623 5.25 133.4 16.3 414.0 2216 153
MD NN AR 15 425 4.38 111.3 16.5 419.1 2015 139
M9 LL AP 9 255 4.38 111.3 10.7 271.8 2015 139
ML7 AJ EH 7 198 4.38 111.3 8.9 226.1 2015 139
ML6 AI EJ 6 170 4.38 111.3 7.6 193.0 2015 139
M6 AD CK 6 170 3.21 81.5 11.6 294.6 2216 153
M4 BT EP 4 113 3.21 81.5 8.4 213.4 2216 153
M2 CC DL 1.5 42 3.21 63.8 5.4 137.2 2216 153

Note 1:  Serial number prefixes “A” – “E” were used for ALL cylinders manufactured by Catalina Cylinders West prior to 1993.

Note 2:  Serial number prefixes listed for Catalina Cylinders East were initiated in June 2001.

Medical Oxygen Cylinder Charge Durations




Duration of Use (in Hours) at Different Regulator Flow Rates
Common Name MD ME MM
Industry Letter Designation A   B     C D   E    
Product Identifer Cliff 9101 9163 9077 9157 9155 9020 9021 9205 9022 9156 9164 9158
Catalina M1.5 M4 M6 ML6 ML7 M9 M15 M22 M24 M60 M90 M122 M150
cylinder
diameter
in 2.51 3.21 3.20 4.38 4.38 4.38 4.38 5.25 4.38 7.25 7.25 8.00 8.00
mm 63.75 81.53 81.28 111.25 111.25 111.25 111.25 133.35 111.25 184.15 184.15 203.20 203.20
cuft
capacity (min)
cuft 1.5 4.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 15.0 22.0 24.0 60.0 90.0 122.0 150.0
liters 42.5 113.3 169.9 169.9 198.2 254.9 424.8 623.0 679.7 1699.2 2548.8 3455.0 4248.0
Continuous
Flow Rates
Hours of Use
 
0.5 l/min 1.42 3.78 5.66 5.66 6.61 8.50 14.16 20.77 22.66 56.64 84.96 115.17 141.60
0.02 cuft/min                        
1 l/min 0.71 1.89 2.83 2.83 3.30 4.25 7.08 10.38 11.33 28.32 42.48 57.58 70.80
0.04 cuft/min                        
2 l/min 0.35 0.94 1.42 1.42 1.65 2.12 3.54 5.19 5.66 14.16 21.24 28.79 35.40
0.07 cuft/min                        
3 l/min 0.24 0.63 0.94 0.94 1.10 1.42 2.36 3.46 3.78 9.44 14.16 19.19 23.60
0.11 cuft/min                        
4 l/min 0.18 0.47 0.71 0.71 0.83 1.06 1.77 2.60 2.83 7.08 10.62 14.40 17.70
0.14 cuft/min                        
5 l/min 0.14 0.38 0.57 0.57 0.66 0.85 1.42 2.08 2.27 5.66 8.50 11.52 14.16
0.18 cuft/min                        
6 l/min 0.12 0.31 0.47 0.47 0.55 0.71 1.18 1.73 1.89 4.72 7.08 9.60 11.80
0.21 cuft/min                        
8 l/min 0.09 0.24 0.35 0.35 0.41 0.53 0.89 1.30 1.42 3.54 5.31 7.20 8.85
0.28 cuft/min                        
10 l/min 0.07 0.19 0.28 0.28 0.33 0.42 0.71 1.04 1.13 2.83 4.25 5.76 7.08
0.35 cuft/min                        
15 l/min 0.05 0.13 0.19 0.19 0.22 0.28 0.47 0.69 0.76 1.89 2.83 3.84 4.72
0.53 cuft/min                        
20 l/min 0.04 0.09 0.14 0.14 0.17 0.21 0.35 0.52 0.57 1.42 2.12 2.88 3.54
0.71 cuft/min                        
25 l/min 0.03 0.08 0.11 0.11 0.13 0.17 0.28 0.42 0.45 1.13 1.70 2.30 2.83
0.88 cuft/min                        
30 l/min 0.02 0.06 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.14 0.24 0.35 0.38 0.94 1.42 1.92 2.36
1.06 cuft/min                        

Heat Indicating Paint and Warning Labels on Medical Oxygen Cylinders

At the time of manufacture of medical oxygen cylinders at Catalina Cylinders in Garden Grove, CA and Catalina Cylinders / Cliff Impact Division in Hampton, VA, the cylinders are painted with a clear powder paint and a warning label is applied. Both the paint and the label are irreversibly heat indicating and will permanently discolor when exposed to elevated temperatures.

Crown Markings of a Medical Oxygen Cylinder

The Department of Transportation (DOT) and Transport Canada (TC) require that a cylinder made in compliance with their specifications be marked on the crown with certain information. Over the years the format used by Catalina Cylinders and Cliff Impact Division of Catalina Cylinders to display these markings has changed a few times. Shown below is an example of the current crown marking stamped on the standard medical “E” cylinders (24 cuft 2015 psi) manufactured by Catalina Cylinders, Garden Grove, CA. Under the example of the crown marking is a list of each of the specific crown markings followed by a brief explanation of that marking. The information provided by the markings is the same, regardless of the different stamping formats used by Catalina Cylinders and Cliff Impact Division of Catalina Cylinders over the years.

Example of crown marking of an “ME” cylinder manufactured at Catalina Cylinders:


DOT-3AL2015..MMXXXXXXX M4002 07C08 CATALINA M24 U12 Oxygen Symbol TC-3ALM139

Marking Explanation of Marking
DOT-3AL The U.S. regulatory authority, the Department of Transportation “DOT“, and specification “3AL” to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance (required mark).

2015 The service pressure “2015“, in pounds per square inch (psi), of the cylinder (required mark).

MMXXXXXXX The cylinder serial number. The serial number prefix of “MM” is specific to the 24 cuft 2015 psi medical oxygen cylinder, manufactured at Catalina Cylinders, Garden Grove, California facility, followed by a seven-digit number (required mark).

M4002 The DOT Manufacturers Number (M-Number) “M4002” issued to Catalina Cylinders, Garden Grove, California facility (required mark).

07C08 The original hydrostatic test date of the cylinder, month “07” followed by the year “08“, performed at the time of manufacture of the cylinder. The “C” represents the symbol of the Independent Inspection Agency (IIA) performing the inspection of and certifying the acceptance of the cylinder at the time of manufacture(required mark).

CATALINA The name of the manufacturer of the cylinder.

M24 The cylinder identifier. Identifies the cylinder is designed for medical service “M” with a capacity of 24 cu ft “24” of oxygen, hence M24.

U12 The cylinder outlet thread designation as specified in CGA TB-16.

Oxygen Symbol Actually an “O” with a “2” inside the “O” signifies that the cylinder is for oxygen service and the lot of cylinders was subjected to residual hydrocarbon testing.

TC-3ALM The Canadian regulatory authority, Transport Canada “TC” and specification “3ALM” to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance (required mark).

139 The service pressure “139” (in bars) of the cylinder (required mark).

Crown Marking Diagram Cliff Impact Division (Hampton, Virginia)Medical “E” Cylinder

DOT-3AL 2015 ASXXXXXXX O2 CLIFFDIV 07C08 TC-3ALM139

Marking Explanation of Marking
DOT-3AL The U.S. regulatory authority, the Department of Transportation “DOT“, and specification “3AL” to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance (required mark).

2015 The service pressure “2015“, in pounds per square inch (psi), of the cylinder (required mark).

ASXXXXXXX The cylinder serial number. The serial number prefix of “AS” is specific to the 24 cuft 2015 psi medical oxygen cylinder, manufactured at the Cliff Impact Division of Catalina Cylinders, Hampton, Virginia facility, followed by a seven-digit number (required mark).

O2 The “O2” signifies that the cylinder is for oxygen service and the lot of cylinders was subjected to residual hydrocarbon testing (required mark).

CLIFFDIV The DOT recognized Manufacturer’s Symbol “CLIFFDIV“, an acceptable alternative to the DOT M-Number issued to Cliff Impact Division of Catalina Cylinders, Hampton, Virginia facility (required mark).

07C08 The original hydrostatic test date of the cylinder, month “07“, followed by the year “08“, performed at the time of manufacture of the cylinder. The “C” represents the symbol of the Independent Inspection Agency (IIA) performing the inspection of and certifying the acceptance of the cylinder at the time of manufacture (required mark).

TC-3ALM The Canadian regulatory authority, Transport Canada “TC” and specification “3ALM” to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance (required mark).

139 The service pressure “139” (in bars) of the cylinder (required mark).

Catalina Cylinders Position on PRD’s in CGA-870 and CGA-540 Valves in 2015 psi and 2216 psi Oxygen Cylinders


After a little bit of work and a lot of dialogue with different people in the compressed gas industry, the following position has been taken by Catalina Cylinders.

HM-220 has come full circle on the pressure relief device (PRD) requirements for oxygen cylinders. As currently written in 49 CFR 173.301(f)(3), ” For a specification 3, 3A, 3AA, 3AL, 3AX, 3AXX, 3B, 3BN, or 3T cylinders filled with gases in other than Division 2.2, beginning with the first requalification due after December 31, 2003, the burst pressure of a CG-1, CG-4, or CG-5 pressure relief device must be at test pressure with a tolerance of plus zero to minus 10%.”, compressed oxygen cylinders are excluded from this requirement since they are identified in the table in section 172.101(columns 3) as a division 2.2 gas. Current specification references were attained on-line at www.myregs.com/dotrspa/.

Catalina interprets this as:

  1. New medical oxygen cylinders with the service pressures of 2015 psi and 2216 psi can be (and will be) equipped with the same CGA 870 or CGA 540 valves with the same PRD rated at 3360 psi +/- 10%. There is no requirement for valves with different rated PRDs to be used on 2015 psi and 2216 psi cylinders. This is the same as it was before HM-220 began.
  2. Old 2216 psi medical oxygen cylinders (i.e the M6, M4, M2, M60, M90 and M122) in service with the (old) 3360 psi +/-10% rated PRDs will not have to have their PRDs changed out at the next requalification.
  3. In preparation for what appeared to be an inevitable rule change, the +0 -10% rating of the pressure relief devices, Catalina Cylinders did procure and insert some valves in M2, M4, and M6 cylinders with pressure relief device rated at 3693 psi +0 -10%.

    These PRD’s are in compliance with the specification written either way, with either the +/-10% or +0 -10% tolerance on the PRDs, and are acceptable as is and will not have to be changed out at any time in the service life of the cylinders.

If you have any questions, please do not hesitate in contacting Catalina Cylinders.

Nitrous Oxide (4)

High Temp Exposure

In CGA Pamphlet G-8.1, “Standards For Nitrous Oxide Systems at Consumer Sites“, it states that nitrous oxide cylinders should not be exposed to temperatures in excess of 125oF (52oC) due to the highly combustible nature of nitrous oxide.

In CGA pamphlet C-6.1, “Standards For Visual Inspection Of High Pressure Aluminum Compressed Gas Cylinders“, it states that cylinders heated to metal temperatures in excess of 350oF (176oC) must be condemned.

Common evidence of exposure to elevated temperatures that may heat the metal temperature to 350oF (176oC) include:

  • discoloration, charring, or blistering of the cylinder paint, protective coatings or labels;
  • distortion of the cylinder;
  • melting of non-metallic (i.e. plastic, etc.) valve components;
  • activation of valve pressure relief device; or
  • activation of a heat indication system

Catalina Cylinders recommends that if there is evidence, or it is believed, that a nitrous oxide cylinder has been exposed to temperatures above 125oF (52oC) but the temperature of metal of the cylinder is not believed to have reached 350oF (176oC) for any duration of time, the cylinder must still be subjected to hydrostatic testing or condemned. A cylinder that has been exposed to temperatures great enough to change the temper of the cylinder could show an increase in total or permanent expansion as measured during hydrostatic testing. Cylinders showing unusually high total expansion or exceeding the regulatory limits for the relationship of permanent expansion to total expansion (i.e. DOT = 10% and TC = 6%) should be condemned.

DOT 3AL and DOT 4E aluminum cylinders subjected to fire must be removed from service according to section (f) (4) of CFR 49 part 173.34, “Qualification, Maintenance, and Use of Cylinders“. No testing for acceptance or re-heat treatment is authorized. 

Cleanliness of Nitrous Oxide Cylinders and Accessories

Ignition of combustible materials will happen more readily in the presence of nitrous oxide. This is why the Department of Transportation (DOT) requires that cylinders containing nitrous oxide, meet the following requirement listed in the “Code of Federal Regulations” (CFR-49) section 173.304 “Charging of Cylinders with liquefied Compressed Gas” paragraph (a)(4)(ii);

Each cylinder must be cleaned in compliance with the requirements of Federal Specification RR-C-901c paragraph 3.7.2 and 3.8.2. Cleaning agents equivalent to those specified in RR-C-901c may be used; however, any cleaning agent must not be capable of reacting with oxygen. One cylinder selected at random from a group of 200 or less cleaned at the same time must be tested for oil contamination in accordance with Specification RR-C-901c paragraph 4.4.2.3 and meet the standard of cleanliness specified.

Cylinders manufactured by Catalina Cylinders for nitrous oxide service are cleaned and tested in accordance with RR-C-901-c at the time of manufacture. Cylinders that are manufactured for charges or fills other than oxygen and nitrous oxide have not been cleaned for oxygen or nitrous oxide service.

Conversion of cylinders not cleaned for oxygen or nitrous oxide service can be done but is not recommended by Catalina Cylinders. If such cylinders are to be converted to nitrous oxide service, the cylinders must be cleaned as if for oxygen service prior to filling with nitrous oxide.

Also, all cylinder accessories (i.e. valves, regulators, etc.) that will come into contact with the nitrous oxide charge must be compatible with oxygen and cleaned as if for oxygen service. The Compressed Gas Association (CGA) has two publications, pamphlet G-4.1 “Cleaning Equipment For Oxygen Service” and a directory “Directory of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Service” that we recommend if such cleaning is to be done. Please note that after all cleaning operations it is recommended that the cylinder be dried completely to reduce the chance of corrosion from occurring.

High Temperature Exposure of Nirtrous Oxide Cylinders

In CGA Pamphlet G-8.1, “Standards For Nitrous Oxide Systems at Consumer Sites“, it states that nitrous oxide cylinders should not be exposed to temperatures in excess of 125oF (52oC) due to the highly combustible nature of nitrous oxide.

In CGA pamphlet C-6.1, “Standards For Visual Inspection Of High Pressure Aluminum Compressed Gas Cylinders“, it states that cylinders heated to metal temperatures in excess of 350oF (176oC) must be condemned.

Common evidence of exposure to elevated temperatures that may heat the metal temperature to 350oF (176oC) include:

  • discoloration, charring, or blistering of the cylinder paint, protective coatings or labels;
  • distortion of the cylinder;
  • melting of non-metallic (i.e. plastic, etc.) valve components;
  • activation of valve pressure relief device; or
  • activation of a heat indication system

Catalina Cylinders recommends that if there is evidence, or it is believed, that a nitrous oxide cylinder has been exposed to temperatures above 125oF (52oC) but the temperature of metal of the cylinder is not believed to have reached 350oF (176oC) for any duration of time, the cylinder must still be subjected to hydrostatic testing or condemned. A cylinder that has been exposed to temperatures great enough to change the temper of the cylinder could show an increase in total or permanent expansion as measured during hydrostatic testing. Cylinders showing unusually high total expansion or exceeding the regulatory limits for the relationship of permanent expansion to total expansion (i.e. DOT = 10% and TC = 6%) should be condemned.

DOT 3AL and DOT 4E aluminum cylinders subjected to fire must be removed from service according to section (f) (4) of CFR 49 part 173.34, “Qualification, Maintenance, and Use of Cylinders“. No testing for acceptance or re-heat treatment is authorized.

Polishing of Nitrous Oxide Cylinders


Catalina Cylinders does not endorse the practice of polishing cylinders.

Polishing methods can subject cylinders to excessive localized heating as well as removal of material from cylinder walls. Due to the physical changes as a result of polishing cylinders, all DOT and TC certificates of conformance, the manufacturing test reports, would be nullified.

Catalina Cylinders recommends that nitrous oxide cylinders be powdercoat painted in a controlled environment at our facilities at the time of manufacture.

Industrial (3)

Valving Procedures

Catalina Cylinders recommends the following procedure for the valving of industrial gas cylinders.

    1. Inspect the inlet and outlet threads of the valve and the threads and o-ring gland of the cylinder for damage to the threads and o-ring area. If either the valve or cylinder has damage to the threads or the o-ring area, do not insert the valve into the cylinder.
    1. Inspect the cylinder threads and the cylinder internally verifying that the cylinder is free from any lubricants and contaminants. Do not proceed if you feel the cylinder may be contaminated.
    1. Catalina Cylinders recommends the insertion of a new buna-N o-ring when the old o-ring shows any sign of tearing or wear.
Cylinder ThreadDesignation ValveDesignation Buna-N
O-ring Size
1.125 – 12 UNF CGA 580 216

 

    1. Catalina Cylinders has found it easiest to place the o-ring on the valve and then insert the valve into the cylinder tightening the valve hand tight.
    1. Final tightening of the valve should be done with a calibrated torque wrench to the recommended torque value noted below:
Catalina Cylinders
Thread Designation Recommended Torque Maximum Torque
1.125 – 12 UNF 40 lbf – ft 50 lbf – ft
.750 – 16 UNF 40 lbf – ft 50 lbf – ft

 

    1. Close the valve with no more than 1 lbf – ft torque.
    1. Do not tamper with the safety device of the valve. The safety device of the valve should be rated at the test pressure of the cylinder.
    1. Whenever replacing the safety device of a valve, Catalina Cylinders recommends that you always replace the safety device with a complete new safety device assembly.
  1. Always verify that the cylinder is empty prior to attempting to replace the safety device of a valve.

Crown Markings of an Industrial Gas Cylinder

The Department of Transportation (DOT) and Transport Canada (TC) require that a cylinder made in compliance with their specifications be marked on the crown with certain information. Over the years the format used by Catalina Cylinders and Cliff Impact Division of Catalina Cylinders to display these markings has changed a few times. Shown below is an example of the current crown marking stamped on the standard industrial gas I150 cylinders (150 cuft 2015 psi) manufactured by Catalina Cylinders, Garden Grove, CA. Under the example of crown marking is a list of each of the specific crown markings followed by a brief explanation of that marking. The information provided by the markings is the same, regardless of the different stamping formats used by Catalina Cylinders and Cliff Impact Division of Catalina Cylinders over the years.

Example of crown marking of an “I150” cylinder manufactured at Catalina Cylinders:

DOT-3AL2015..EBXXXXXXX M4002 07C08 I150 U18 TC-3ALM139

Marking Description
DOT-3AL The U.S. regulatory authority, the Department of Transportation (DOT), and specification, 3AL, to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance(required mark).

2015 The service pressure “2015”, in pounds per square inch (psi), of the cylinder (required mark).

EBXXXXXXX The serial number of the cylinder. The serial number prefix of “EB” is specific to the 150 cuft 2015 psi industrial gas cylinder, manufactured at Catalina Cylinders, Garden Grove, CA facility, followed by a seven digit number (required mark).

M4002 The DOT Manufacturers Number (M-Number) “M4002” issued to Catalina Cylinders, Garden Grove, California facility (required mark).

07C08 The original hydrostatic test date of the cylinder, month “07” followed by the year “08“, performed at the time of manufacture of the cylinder. The “C” represents the symbol of the Independent Inspection Agency (IIA) performing the inspection of and certifying the acceptance of the cylinder at the time of manufacture(required mark).

CATALINA The name of the manufacturer of the cylinder.

I150 The cylinder identifier. Identifies the cylinder is designed for the industrial gas service “I” a capacity of 150 cuft “150” of gas charge, hence I150.

U18 The cylinder outlet thread designation as specified in CGA TB-16.

TC-3ALM The Canadian regulatory authority, Transport Canada “TC”, and specification “3ALM”, to which the cylinder is manufactured in compliance (required mark).

139 The service pressure “139” (in bars) of the cylinder (required mark).

Recommended Procedure for Valving Industrial Gas Cylinders

Catalina Cylinders recommends the following procedure for the valving of industrial gas cylinders.

  1. Inspect the inlet and outlet threads of the valve and the threads and o-ring
    gland of the cylinder for damage to the threads and o-ring area. If either
    the valve or cylinder has damage to the threads or the o-ring area, do not
    insert the valve into the cylinder.
  2. Inspect the cylinder threads and the cylinder internally verifying that
    the cylinder is free from any lubricants and contaminants. Do not proceed
    if you feel the cylinder may be contaminated.
  3. Catalina Cylinders recommends the insertion of a new buna-N o-ring when
    the old o-ring shows any sign of tearing or wear.

  4. Cylinder Thread Designation

    Valve Designation

    Buna-N
    O-ring Size

    1.125 – 12 UNF

    CGA 580

    216

  5. Catalina Cylinders has found it easiest to place the o-ring on the valve
    and then insert the valve into the cylinder tightening the valve hand tight.
  6. Final tightening of the valve should be done with a calibrated torque wrench
    to the recommended torque value noted below:
  7.  
    Thread
    Designation
    Recommended
    Torque
    Maximum
    Torque

    1.125 – 12 UNF

    40 lbf – ft

    50 lbf – ft
    .750
    – 16 UNF

    40 lbf – ft

    50 lbf – ft

  8. Close the valve with no more than 1 lbf – ft torque.
  9. Do not tamper with the safety device of the valve. The safety device of
    the valve should be rated at the test pressure of the cylinder.
  10. Whenever replacing the safety device of a valve, Catalina Cylinders recommends
    that you always replace the safety device with a complete new safety device
    assembly.
  11. Always verify that the cylinder is empty prior to attempting to replace
    the safety device of a valve.